Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

AgriLife Research wheat studies pay off

28.04.2010
Karnal bunt restrictions lifted in parts of Arizona, California and Texas

Research came full circle on April 16 as the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service amended the Karnal bunt quarantine areas in Arizona, California and Texas, according to a Texas AgriLife Research scientist.

"The research is finally paying off," said Dr. Charlie Rush, AgriLife Research plant pathologist, of the action by APHIS to lift the restrictions on the interstate movement of Karnal bunt regulated wheat from certain areas in all the three states. Texas has no further restrictions, however, Arizona still has one remaining area under quarantine.

"Sometimes it takes years to realize the impact of a specific research project, but this is a perfect example of where research allowed the government to make changes, and today the producers get the final payoff," Rush said.

Rush and his associates, through work in the AgriLife Research High Plains Plant Pathology Laboratory and Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, spent five years working on Karnal bunt to provide federal agencies information demonstrating the disease would not explode and cause significant disease outbreaks, even under optimum environmental conditions.

Karnal bunt is a fungal disease of wheat, first observed in the U.S. in 1996. The disease causes wheat kernels to be damaged by fungal teliospores. Each infected kernel can produce many reproductive spores and aid in the spread of the disease, Rush said. Bunted wheat can have an impact on flour quality by causing a fishy odor, but it is not toxic to humans or livestock.

In 2000, a federal order under the Plant Protection Act prohibited or restricted the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part or article to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the U.S.

"When they first found Karnal bunt near Wichita Falls and San Saba, everything within a certain diameter around the field was quarantined," Rush said. "While it was never really a significant disease, the political ramifications and export issues grew and many producers suffered great losses."

Specifically, a region near Olney, including Archer, Baylor, Throckmorton and Young counties, and a region near San Saba, including McCulloch and San Saba counties, were placed under restriction.

Texas A&M System economists at the time estimated the fungal disease hurt the Rolling Plains regional economy to the tune of more than $27 million in the first year.

"The real tragedy of all of this was the producers it affected," said Stan Bevers, Texas AgriLife Extension Service economist in Vernon. "They had restrictions placed on them from moving their wheat and cattle that had grazed on the pastures. Producers found their land values dropping and their equity evaporating."

Karnal bunt can infect flowering plants if they come in contact with spores, primarily when temperatures are cool and rainfall and humidity are high. Researchers warned producers the spores could be spread from field to field on plants, seeds, soil, farm equipment, tools, vehicles or on the wind. Once in the soil, the spores can survive for as long as five years.

Rush said the five-year waiting period with negative results in these fields is what has finally been met, allowing the restrictions to be lifted.

David Marshall, a Texas A&M wheat researcher and director of the Dallas screening lab which handled all the Texas samples at the time, started the early diagnostic work, but he later moved to a new position with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service in North Carolina.

With Marshall's departure, Rush said he was contacted by George Nash, state operational officer for APHIS in Austin, to pick up the research needed.

"Even though Karnal bunt wasn't a concern up here in the Texas Panhandle, as a wheat pathologist I just felt responsible to the growers in the state and took on the project," Rush said.

Rush, along with associates Dr. Jeff Stein, Dr. Tom Allen and Dr. Fekede Workneh, began concentrating on distribution and density of fungal spores and the movement of teliospores in the soil from a single-point introduction.

This allowed them to estimate how and when the pathogen was introduced in a field, and how rapidly the spores might be distributed across the field, he said. This information was used to develop a pest risk assessment, which is a prerequisite for federal deregulation.

Rush, working in collaboration with Dr. Bob Bowden on a federal initiative through the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and Kansas State University, was able to set up a Karnal bunt quarantine laboratory – the only state agriculture research station lab federally approved by USDA-APHIS for research on Karnal bunt.

In addition, the Texas High Plains Plant Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory, a part of the Great Plains Diagnostic Network, was subsequently established as an offshoot of Rush's work with Karnal bunt.

"Having the quarantine lab allowed us to actually work with the living organism," he said. "Obviously, there were a lot of safety precautions that had to be taken and strictly adheered to, especially since we were in the middle of wheat country."

By 2005, their studies indicated the spores of the Karnal bunt pathogen were not readily spread by conventional tillage equipment; that widespread distribution of teliospores existed in naturally infested fields in Texas and Arizona, suggesting the pathogen was likely to have existed for many years prior to its initial detection; and that it was probably spread through infested seed or manure.

Rush said despite the widespread incidence of fungal spores in field soils, disease incidence and severity was never high in Texas. The Karnal bunt lab has recently been closed and the project monies reallocated.

"Our research, in combination with work by USDA scientists and APHIS personnel, provided justification for the USDA to modify their rules. APHIS changed the rule to say if a field tested negative for five years, it could be taken out of restriction," Rush said.

Dr. Charlie Rush | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.tamu.edu

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Six-legged livestock -- sustainable food production
11.05.2017 | Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen

nachricht Elephant Herpes: Super-Shedders Endanger Young Animals
04.05.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier

The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.

The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New insights into the ancestors of all complex life

29.05.2017 | Earth Sciences

New photocatalyst speeds up the conversion of carbon dioxide into chemical resources

29.05.2017 | Life Sciences

NASA's SDO sees partial eclipse in space

29.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>