Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Streaks in aurora found to map features in earth's radiation environment

28.08.2019

A special kind of streaked aurora has been found to track disturbances in near-Earth space from the ground.

Known as structured diffuse aurora, it was recently discovered, with the help of NASA spacecraft and instruments, that these faint lights in the night sky can map the edges of the Van Allen radiation belts -- hazardous concentric bands of charged particles encircling Earth.


This illustration shows the white-light observations of the fine structure in the aurora superimposed over Alaska. The dots signifying electrons are color coded to show their origins, with red dots indicating electrons from the radiation belts and blue from further out.

Credits: NASA/Google Earth/Nithin Sivadas

When the Van Allen belts undulate in shape and size -- which they do in response to incoming radiation from the Sun as well as changes from Earth below -- they can envelop satellites in unexpected radiation.

The new discovery will help us better track the edges of the belts -- and the more we know about how the belts are changing, the more we can mitigate such effects.

The road to linking these auroras to the Van Allen belts began with a blob seen in radar data.

Scientists spotted the unexpected blob, caused by an excess of electrons, in radar data from Poker Flat, a research facility and rocket range in Alaska – and they set out to find its origin. Using a group of instruments — including NASA’s Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission, NOAA-17 (a low-Earth orbit spacecraft), and radar and optical instruments on the ground at Poker Flat — the scientists were able to track back to the electrons’ source.

They did this by looking at the energies of the electrons. Electrons coming from the outer Van Allen belt have high energies that decrease farther away from Earth. The scientists worked out where these electrons had been by mapping their trajectories and working backwards.

Measurements from the NOAA-17 satellite along the trajectory confirmed that the streaked aurora, which was visible during the blob event, ultimately maps to the edge of the outer Van Allen belt.

The scientists found the electrons had been knocked loose from the outer Van Allen belts as Earth’s magnetic environment was squeezed before the onset of what’s known as a substorm — a space weather event on the night side of Earth triggered by an onslaught of charged particles from the Sun. Eventually, the electrons made their way down into the atmosphere, where they manifested as streaks in the aurora.

Scientists will now be able to watch structured diffuse aurora from the ground in real-time to better understand how the edge of the outer Van Allen belt is changing — something that previously could only be done intermittently by waiting for a spacecraft to fly under the belt.

Mara Johnson-Groh | EurekAlert!
Further information:
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2019/streaks-in-aurora-found-to-map-features-in-earth-s-radiation-environment

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht FAST detects neutral hydrogen emission from extragalactic galaxies for the first time
02.07.2020 | Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters

nachricht First exposed planetary core discovered
01.07.2020 | Universität Bern

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electrons in the fast lane

Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells. An international team led by Stefan Weber from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of these "electron highways" could make perovskite solar cells even more powerful.

Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. During this process, the electrons of the material inside the cell absorb the energy of the light....

Im Focus: The lightest electromagnetic shielding material in the world

Empa researchers have succeeded in applying aerogels to microelectronics: Aerogels based on cellulose nanofibers can effectively shield electromagnetic radiation over a wide frequency range – and they are unrivalled in terms of weight.

Electric motors and electronic devices generate electromagnetic fields that sometimes have to be shielded in order not to affect neighboring electronic...

Im Focus: Gentle wall contact – the right scenario for a fusion power plant

Quasi-continuous power exhaust developed as a wall-friendly method on ASDEX Upgrade

A promising operating mode for the plasma of a future power plant has been developed at the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device at Max Planck Institute for Plasma...

Im Focus: ILA Goes Digital – Automation & Production Technology for Adaptable Aircraft Production

Live event – July 1, 2020 - 11:00 to 11:45 (CET)
"Automation in Aerospace Industry @ Fraunhofer IFAM"

The Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM l Stade is presenting its forward-looking R&D portfolio for the first time at...

Im Focus: AI monitoring of laser welding processes - X-ray vision and eavesdropping ensure quality

With an X-ray experiment at the European Synchrotron ESRF in Grenoble (France), Empa researchers were able to demonstrate how well their real-time acoustic monitoring of laser weld seams works. With almost 90 percent reliability, they detected the formation of unwanted pores that impair the quality of weld seams. Thanks to a special evaluation method based on artificial intelligence (AI), the detection process is completed in just 70 milliseconds.

Laser welding is a process suitable for joining metals and thermoplastics. It has become particularly well established in highly automated production, for...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International conference QuApps shows status quo of quantum technology

02.07.2020 | Event News

Dresden Nexus Conference 2020: Same Time, Virtual Format, Registration Opened

19.05.2020 | Event News

Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium AWK'21 will take place on June 10 and 11, 2021

07.04.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rising water temperatures could endanger the mating of many fish species

03.07.2020 | Life Sciences

Risk of infection with COVID-19 from singing: First results of aerosol study with the Bavarian Radio Chorus

03.07.2020 | Studies and Analyses

Efficient, Economical and Aesthetic: Researchers Build Electrodes from Leaves

03.07.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>