Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Equations against hypothermia

01.09.2004


Sharks are, by tradition, the eternal threat facing divers. Yet, a diver is quite a lot more unlikely to meet such a creature under the water than, at some time or another, to come up against an even greater danger – hypothermia, or exposure. To enable divers to prevent this syndrome from creeping silently up on them, two researchers from the Area of Applied Physics at the University Jaume I (Spain) have formulated an equation that enables divers to calculate the time they can safely remain submerged in the water at a certain temperature before the onset of exposure.



Taking into account parameters such as the initial body temperature, the rate at which body heat is produced, the temperature of the water and the thickness of the diving suit, among others, the formula provides an estimated value for the amount of time it will take the diver to reach a level of heat loss that is critical for his or her survival. If the mean temperature of the human body is 37 ºC, exposure comes about when the temperature drops below 35 ºC, and collapse and death can occur when it reaches 30 ºC.

“The exchange of energy between the diver and the water is less relevant when we are dealing with the physics of scuba diving because the limited supply of air in the bottles means that dives usually last less than an hour. It is, however, important in breath-hold or apnea diving, where divers are often underwater for over three hours,” explains Marcelo Aguilella Arzo, one of the authors, in a paper published in the American Journal of Physics.


Water makes the body temperature drop up to 26 times faster than air at the same temperature. Thus, according to the equation developed by the researchers at the University Jaume I, without the protection afforded by a suit a diver submerged in water at 15 ºC will be able to remain underwater less than an hour before beginning to feel the effects of exposure. On the other hand, if the diver is wearing a 3-millimetre thick neoprene suit this figure rises to four hours.

Hugo Cerdà | alfa
Further information:
http://www.uji.es

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A new twist on a mesmerizing story
17.01.2019 | ETH Zurich Department of Physics

nachricht Ultra ultrasound to transform new tech
17.01.2019 | Swansea University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Ultra ultrasound to transform new tech

World first experiments on sensor that may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles

The new sensor - capable of detecting vibrations of living cells - may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles.

Im Focus: Flying Optical Cats for Quantum Communication

Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state.

In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken...

Im Focus: Nanocellulose for novel implants: Ears from the 3D-printer

Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.

It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:

Im Focus: Elucidating the Atomic Mechanism of Superlubricity

The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.

One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...

Im Focus: Mission completed – EU partners successfully test new technologies for space robots in Morocco

Just in time for Christmas, a Mars-analogue mission in Morocco, coordinated by the Robotics Innovation Center of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) as part of the SRC project FACILITATORS, has been successfully completed. SRC, the Strategic Research Cluster on Space Robotics Technologies, is a program of the European Union to support research and development in space technologies. From mid-November to mid-December 2018, a team of more than 30 scientists from 11 countries tested technologies for future exploration of Mars and Moon in the desert of the Maghreb state.

Close to the border with Algeria, the Erfoud region in Morocco – known to tourists for its impressive sand dunes – offered ideal conditions for the four-week...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Our digital society in 2040

16.01.2019 | Event News

11th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Aachen, 3-4 April 2019

14.01.2019 | Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new twist on a mesmerizing story

17.01.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Brilliant glow of paint-on semiconductors comes from ornate quantum physics

17.01.2019 | Materials Sciences

Drones shown to make traffic crash site assessments safer, faster and more accurate

17.01.2019 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>