For the first time, researcher Peter Eshuis of the University of Twente in The Netherlands shows this phenomenon in granular matter using a high speed camera. His research gains a better understanding of the behaviour of these materials that are often used and produced in industry.
Convection can be noticed in water when it nears the boiling point. Rolling movements then occur, to get rid of excess heat: heated fluid rises and cooler water falls, causing a roll. A similar and beautiful effect is seen in little balls shaken hard: starting with an eruption of rising fast balls that go down again, clusters are formed and a rotating movement starts. Just like in fluid, there are balls with lower energy clustering and with higher energy, moving fast. Analogous to the temperature of the boiling plate heating fluids, the shaking energy gives rise to phase transitions.
Before convection starts, at lower shaking intensities, the balls already show behaviour typical to fluids: in fluids this is called the Leidenfrost effect, when a droplet is ‘floating’ on a thin layer of gas. The same happens with vertically shaken balls: a packed cluster of balls ‘floats’ on a layer of fast moving balls. This layer is therefore called ‘granular gas’. Eshuis describes the transition from the Leidenfrost condition towards convection. This is not just a matter of rising the level of energy, he found out: there has to be an instability that causes the onset of convection. This instability causes some balls to cluster and others to free themselves.
Granular matter like grain, sugar, sand and pills, often give rise to unexpected effects during transport, processing or storage. This often causes stagnation in industrial processes or excessive energy consumption. Better understanding of the behaviour of the materials, like Eshuis presents in his thesis, helps to prevent these effect. He also proves that many phenomena like clustering of grains can be explained by treating and describing the materials like fluids.
Peter Eshuis (1980) studied Applied Physics at the University of Twente and did his PhD-research within the Physics of Fluids research group of prof. Detlef Lohse, part of the Institute of Mechanics, Processes and Control (IMPACT) of the University of Twente.
Wiebe van der Veen | alfa
Immortal quantum particles: the cycle of decay and rebirth
14.06.2019 | Technische Universität München
Small currents for big gains in spintronics
13.06.2019 | University of Tokyo
Light can be used not only to measure materials’ properties, but also to change them. Especially interesting are those cases in which the function of a material can be modified, such as its ability to conduct electricity or to store information in its magnetic state. A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one.
Ferroelectricity is a state in which the constituent lattice “looks” in one specific direction, forming a macroscopic electrical polarisation. The ability to...
Researchers at TU Graz calculate the most accurate gravity field determination of the Earth using 1.16 billion satellite measurements. This yields valuable knowledge for climate research.
The Earth’s gravity fluctuates from place to place. Geodesists use this phenomenon to observe geodynamic and climatological processes. Using...
Discovery by Brazilian and US researchers could change the classification of two species, which appear more akin to jellyfish than was thought.
The tube anemone Isarachnanthus nocturnus is only 15 cm long but has the largest mitochondrial genome of any animal sequenced to date, with 80,923 base pairs....
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a completely new way of capturing, amplifying and linking light to matter at the nanolevel. Using a tiny box, built from stacked atomically thin material, they have succeeded in creating a type of feedback loop in which light and matter become one. The discovery, which was recently published in Nature Nanotechnology, opens up new possibilities in the world of nanophotonics.
Photonics is concerned with various means of using light. Fibre-optic communication is an example of photonics, as is the technology behind photodetectors and...
Fraunhofer IZM is joining the EUROPRACTICE IC Service platform. Together, the partners are making fan-out wafer level packaging (FOWLP) for electronic devices available and affordable even in small batches – and thus of interest to research institutes, universities, and SMEs. Costs can be significantly reduced by up to ten customers implementing individual fan-out wafer level packaging for their ICs or other components on a multi-project wafer. The target group includes any organization that does not produce in large quantities, but requires prototypes.
Research always means trying things out and daring to do new things. Research institutes, universities, and SMEs do not produce in large batches, but rather...
29.04.2019 | Event News
17.04.2019 | Event News
15.04.2019 | Event News
14.06.2019 | Information Technology
14.06.2019 | Materials Sciences
14.06.2019 | Medical Engineering