Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

One Kind of Supersymmetry Shown to Emerge Naturally

10.04.2014

A UCSB physicist outlines how this unique phenomenon occurs in a condensed matter system

UC Santa Barbara physicist Tarun Grover has provided definitive mathematical evidence for supersymmetry in a condensed matter system. Sought after in the realm of subatomic particles by physicists for several decades, supersymmetry describes a unique relationship between particles. 


Supersymmetry in a three-dimensional topological superconductor: Ising magnetic fluctuations (denoted by red arrows) at the boundary couple to the fermions (blue cone).

“As yet, no one has found supersymmetry in our universe, including at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC),” said the associate specialist at UCSB’s Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP). He is referring to the underground laboratory in Switzerland where the famous Higgs boson was identified in 2012. 

“This is a fresh insight as to how supersymmetry arises in nature.” The findings of Grover’s research, conducted with colleagues Donna Sheng and Ashvin Vishwanath, appear in the current online edition of the journal Science. 

The fundamental constituents of matter — electrons, quarks and their relatives — are fermions. The particles associated with fundamental forces are called bosons. Several decades ago, physicists hypothesized that every type of particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, a theory that captures the dynamics of known subatomic particles, has one or more superpartners — other types of particles that share many of the same properties but differ in a crucial way. 

If a particle is a fermion, its superpartner is a boson, and if a particle is a boson, its superpartner is a fermion. This is supersymmetry, a postulated unique theoretical symmetry of space. 

While the Standard Model governing the ordinary world is not supersymmetric, it is often theorized that the more “fundamental” theory relevant to very hot systems, such as those probed in high-energy particle accelerators like the LHC (or higher energy ones yet to be built), might exhibit supersymmetry. This has yet to be proved or disproved by accelerator experiments. 

However, through their calculations, Grover and his co-authors show that supersymmetry emerges naturally in a topological superconductor. An example is helium-3, a light, nonradioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium has two neutrons). When helium-3 is cooled to almost absolute zero (0 Kelvin), it becomes a liquid superconductor. As understood only recently, the boundary of its container features fermions. 

“The reason these fermions exist is related to time-reversal symmetry, which is unrelated to supersymmetry,” said Grover. A video of an object tossed vertically up in the air is a good example of time-reversal symmetry. When the video is played back, it shows the object following the same parabolic trajectory through the air as it did when the video was played normally. “We wanted to see what would happen to these fermions when time-reversal symmetry was broken,” Grover explained. 

The scientists theorized that the application of a specified amount of magnetic field to the surface of the container would break the time-reversal symmetry. This, in turn, would cause the fermions to disappear due to their interaction with bosons that already exist in the liquid helium-3. Grover and his coauthors found that right at the point when fermions are about to disappear, the fermions and the bosons behave as superpartners of each other, thus providing a condensed matter analog of supersymmetry. 

According to physicists, if supersymmetry can be proved in high-energy experiments, it opens the door to answers that physicists have been seeking for years and may pave the way to analyze and even integrate different fundamental physics theories such as quantum field theory, string theory and Einstein’s relativity. 

“Grover’s team shows that supersymmetry may be studied in low-energy experiments,” said physics professor Leon Balents, Grover’s colleague at KITP. “This would be amazing in its own right and could serve as an inexpensive tabletop model for what to look for at particle accelerators.” 

“Our paper provides insight into how and in what systems supersymmetry may emerge in a very natural way,” Grover said. “Maybe it doesn’t exist in our actual universe, but there exist these condensed matter systems, such as topological superconductors, where supersymmetry can exist. This opens the window for experimentalists to go and test supersymmetry and its exciting consequences in real life.” 

Contact Info: 

Julie Cohen
julie.cohen@ucsb.edu
(805) 893-7220

Julie Cohen | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2014/014069/one-kind-supersymmetry-shown-emerge-naturally#

Further reports about: Collider Hadron Institute LHC Model Physics Standard Switzerland experiments mathematical matter underground

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht What happens when we heat the atomic lattice of a magnet all of a sudden?
18.07.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin

nachricht Subaru Telescope helps pinpoint origin of ultra-high energy neutrino
16.07.2018 | National Institutes of Natural Sciences

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Machine-learning predicted a superhard and high-energy-density tungsten nitride

18.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts

18.07.2018 | Life Sciences

Why might reading make myopic?

18.07.2018 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>