The cells featured in the study are gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSC), which are found in the gingiva, or gum tissue, within the mouth. GMSC, like other stem cells, have the ability to develop into different types of cells as well as affect the immune system.
“Gingiva is very unique in our body,” says Professor Songtao Shi, the study’s senior author. “It has much less inflammatory reaction and heals much faster when compared to skin.”
Previously, the developmental origins and abilities of GMSC hadn’t been fully illustrated. This study shows that there are two types of GMSC: those that arise from the mesoderm layer of cells during embryonic development (M-GMSC) and those that come from cranial neural crest cells (N-GMSC). The cranial neural crest cells develop into many important structures of the head and face, and 90 percent of the gingival stem cells were found to be N-GMSC.
The study indicates that the stem cells in the gingiva – obtained via a simple biopsy of the gums – may have important medical applications in the future.
“We will further work on dissecting the details of the gingiva stem cells, especially their notable immunoregulatory property,” says first author Xingtian Xu, specialized lab technician at the Ostrow School of Dentistry Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology.
“Through the study of this unique oral tissue, we want to shed the light on the translational applications for improving skin wound healing and reducing scar formation.”
“Gingivae Contain Neural-crest- and Mesoderm-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells” appeared online on July 18 in the Journal of Dental Research and was funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.
Beth Newcomb | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > Dental Analytics > Dentistry > Parkinson’s Disease > Stem cell innovation > Tissue Engineering > craniofacial > embryonic development > immunoregulatory property > inflammatory > medical applications > mesenchymal stem cells > methanol fuel cells > skin wound healing > stem cells
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