Many of today’s medicines were discovered by trial and error: a substance is found which helps alleviate the symptoms of a disease, and it may take years before scientists really understand how it works. Typically they find that a drug has its effects by attaching itself to a particular molecule in a cell and blocking part of its activity, the way you might prevent someone from turning a light on or off by putting a lock over the switch. Scientists now hope to take the opposite approach, and custom-design drugs to block specific switches. To do so, they will need precise “technical diagrams” of the molecules they want to lock up. Now the Italian researcher Giulio Superti-Furga and his colleagues at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) have produced such a diagram of a cancer-causing molecule, and their work gives researchers a good idea of how to go about designing drugs. Their report appears in the current issue of the journal Cell.
The molecule, a protein called Abl, is produced in all human cells. Some people acquire a defect in the genetic blueprint for this molecule, causing their bodies to create a malformed version called BCR-Abl. For years researchers have known that this defective molecule is linked to forms of the deadly disease leukemia.
Abl has important jobs to perform within cells. One of its chief roles is to get information from proteins and pass it on to other molecules – like a radio operator who receives a message telling him to turn on an alarm. If Abl is defective, it might not hear incoming messages, or it might continually send off alarms, even when it hasn’t been told to do so.
Russell Hodge | alphagalileo
New way to target advanced breast cancers
24.09.2018 | Jackson Laboratory
Neutrons produce first direct 3D maps of water during cell membrane fusion
21.09.2018 | DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory
The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. After the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, matter consisted mainly of quarks and gluons, two types of elementary particles whose interactions are governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interaction. In the early universe, these particles moved (nearly) freely in a quark-gluon plasma.
This is a joint press release of University Muenster and Heidelberg as well as the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.
Then, in a phase transition, they combined and formed hadrons, among them the building blocks of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons. In the current issue of...
Thin-film solar cells made of crystalline silicon are inexpensive and achieve efficiencies of a good 14 percent. However, they could do even better if their shiny surfaces reflected less light. A team led by Prof. Christiane Becker from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) has now patented a sophisticated new solution to this problem.
"It is not enough simply to bring more light into the cell," says Christiane Becker. Such surface structures can even ultimately reduce the efficiency by...
A study in the journal Bulletin of Marine Science describes a new, blood-red species of octocoral found in Panama. The species in the genus Thesea was discovered in the threatened low-light reef environment on Hannibal Bank, 60 kilometers off mainland Pacific Panama, by researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama (STRI) and the Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR) at the University of Costa Rica.
Scientists established the new species, Thesea dalioi, by comparing its physical traits, such as branch thickness and the bright red colony color, with the...
Scientists have succeeded in observing the first long-distance transfer of information in a magnetic group of materials known as antiferromagnets.
An international team of researchers has mapped Nemo's genome, providing the research community with an invaluable resource to decode the response of fish to...
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