Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New drug reduces chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

15.10.2003


Two new studies now show that aprepitant – the first in a new class of drugs that interfere with the vomiting reflex – can substantially reduce chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting in cancer patients treated with cisplatin, a common type of chemotherapy. Results of both Journal of Clinical Oncology studies, early release articles published online October 14, formed the basis of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s approval of aprepitant in March 2003.



Aprepitant Combined with Standard Treatment for Nausea and Vomiting Helps Prevent These Symptoms Following Chemotherapy

The first study, led by Paul J. Hesketh, MD, at the Caritas St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center in Boston, found that adding aprepitant to the standard therapy to control nausea and vomiting could more effectively prevent these symptoms than the standard treatment alone. Nausea and vomiting were reduced both on the day that chemotherapy was given and, more importantly, in the several days that followed, when nausea and vomiting often occur.


"The nausea and vomiting that occurs 24 hours after receiving cisplatin is particularly problematic for patients, and aprepitant provided a substantial improvement," said Dr. Hesketh. "Aprepitant should change the standard of care for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, especially for patients receiving chemotherapy drugs known to cause severe vomiting."

The international phase III study involved 520 patients with respiratory cancers, all of whom received ondansetron plus dexamethasone – the standard therapy to prevent nausea and vomiting. In addition, the patients were randomly assigned to receive oral aprepitant or a placebo. Patients kept diaries to document any nausea or vomiting that occurred on the day that chemotherapy was given and on the four days that followed, noting whether they needed additional medication to control these symptoms.

Researchers found that 26 percent of patients on the aprepitant regimen experienced nausea or vomiting, while nearly 48 percent of patients on the standard treatment experienced these side effects.

Results were particularly encouraging two to five days after the administration of chemotherapy, when standard treatments often fail. During this time period, 25 percent of patients on the aprepitant regimen reported nausea or vomiting, compared to 44 percent of those taking the standard drugs.

Aprepitant Added to Standard Therapy Protects Against Nausea and Vomiting Over Multiple Cycles of Chemotherapy

The second study, led by Ronald de Wit, MD, PhD, of the Rotterdam Cancer Institute in the Netherlands, found that the benefits of aprepitant extended over the course of multiple cycles of chemotherapy. Previous studies have shown that nausea and vomiting often become more severe over the course of several cycles of chemotherapy, and that standard therapy to control nausea and vomiting tends to become less effective as the number of chemotherapy cycles increases.

"This is a major clinical improvement in the ability to control nausea and vomiting – two of the most distressing side effects of chemotherapy," said Dr. de Wit. "The benefits experienced by patients taking aprepitant should be considered a major leap forward."

The international phase II clinical trial involved 164 cancer patients, all of whom were scheduled to receive up to six cycles of cisplatin. Recruited from 50 centers, including 21 in the United States, patients were randomly assigned to receive either oral aprepitant or a placebo, in addition to ondansetron and dexamethasone. Patients kept diaries identical to those in the previous study.

Researchers found that 64 percent of patients taking aprepitant plus standard therapy experienced no nausea or vomiting after the first cycle of cisplatin, compared to 49 percent of patients taking only the standard therapy. After six cycles of cisplatin therapy, 59 percent of patients who continued to take aprepitant along with the standard therapy reported no nausea or vomiting, compared to only 34 percent of those who received the standard therapy alone.

"This study shows that the benefits of aprepitant are not confined to the first cycle of chemotherapy and that this enhanced protection against nausea and vomiting can be sustained," said Dr. de Wit.


"The Oral NK1 Antagonist Aprepitant For the Prevention of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Multinational, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial in Patients
Receiving High-Dose Cisplatin." Paul J. Hesketh, M.D., et al; Caritas St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

"Addition of the Oral NK1 Antagonist Aprepitant (EMEND®) To Standard Antiemetics Provided Protection Against Nausea and Vomiting during Multiple Cycles of Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy."
Ronald de Wit, M.D., et al; Rotterdam Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The Journal of Clinical Oncology is the semi-monthly peer-reviewed journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the world’s leading professional society representing physicians who treat people with cancer.

Carrie Housman | EurekAlert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Structural framework for tumors also provides immune protection
26.02.2020 | Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University

nachricht Finding new clues to brain cancer treatment
21.02.2020 | Case Western Reserve University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: High-pressure scientists in Bayreuth discover promising material for information technology

Researchers at the University of Bayreuth have discovered an unusual material: When cooled down to two degrees Celsius, its crystal structure and electronic properties change abruptly and significantly. In this new state, the distances between iron atoms can be tailored with the help of light beams. This opens up intriguing possibilities for application in the field of information technology. The scientists have presented their discovery in the journal "Angewandte Chemie - International Edition". The new findings are the result of close cooperation with partnering facilities in Augsburg, Dresden, Hamburg, and Moscow.

The material is an unusual form of iron oxide with the formula Fe₅O₆. The researchers produced it at a pressure of 15 gigapascals in a high-pressure laboratory...

Im Focus: From China to the South Pole: Joining forces to solve the neutrino mass puzzle

Study by Mainz physicists indicates that the next generation of neutrino experiments may well find the answer to one of the most pressing issues in neutrino physics

Among the most exciting challenges in modern physics is the identification of the neutrino mass ordering. Physicists from the Cluster of Excellence PRISMA+ at...

Im Focus: Therapies without drugs

Fraunhofer researchers are investigating the potential of microimplants to stimulate nerve cells and treat chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, or Parkinson’s disease. Find out what makes this form of treatment so appealing and which challenges the researchers still have to master.

A study by the Robert Koch Institute has found that one in four women will suffer from weak bladders at some point in their lives. Treatments of this condition...

Im Focus: A step towards controlling spin-dependent petahertz electronics by material defects

The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.

Light waves perform several hundred trillion oscillations per second. Hence, it is natural to envision employing light oscillations to drive the electronic...

Im Focus: Freiburg researcher investigate the origins of surface texture

Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.

Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

70th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Around 70 Laureates set to meet with young scientists from approx. 100 countries

12.02.2020 | Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists 'film' a quantum measurement

26.02.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

Melting properties determine the biological functions of the cuticular hydrocarbon layer of ants

26.02.2020 | Interdisciplinary Research

Lights, camera, action... the super-fast world of droplet dynamics

26.02.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>