Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Good bacteria armed with antibiotic resistance protect gut microbiome

13.06.2014

Researchers from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland have discovered that populating the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mice with Bacteroides species producing a specific enzyme helps protect the good commensal bacteria from the harmful effects of antibiotics. Their research is published ahead of print in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

Antibiotics are powerful weapons against pathogens, but most are relatively indiscriminate, killing the good bacteria, along with the bad. Thus, they may render patients vulnerable to invasion, particularly by virulent, antibiotic-resistant pathogens that frequently populate hospitals.

The novel aspect of the research is that the enzyme produced by these bacteria, beta-lactamase, is a major cause of antibiotic resistance, says first author, Usha Stiefel. Interestingly, the enzyme is not only protecting the bacteria that produce it but also the rest of the bacteria making up the intestinal microbiome.

In the study, the investigators established populations of beta-lactamase producing Bacteroides in some mice, but not others. They then gave all the mice ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, for three days and then oral doses of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, or Clostridium difficile, both of which are virulent GI pathogens.

The mice that had been populated with Bacteroides maintained their diverse species of commensal gut bacteria, free of pathogens, while the control mice saw their commensals decimated by antibiotics, enabling establishment of the pathogens.

"When patients in the hospital or nursing home setting receive antibiotics, it is doubly dangerous when they lose their native colonic bacteria, because healthcare settings are full of resistant or particularly virulent bacteria, and so patients are especially vulnerable to acquiring these bacteria within their intestinal tracts," says Stiefel.

Since the Bacteroides, which comprise roughly one quarter of the intestinal microbiome, are absent elsewhere in the body, the investigators believe that the beta-lactamase will not interfere with treatment of infections in other organ systems, such as in the respiratory tract, or the blood, explains Stiefel.

"The results of our study are exciting because they show how it might be possible to take antibiotics without suffering from the loss of your colonic microbiome and then becoming colonized by virulent pathogens," says Stiefel. For example, beta-lactamase enzymes could be given orally as drugs, to protect the gut bacteria from systemic antibiotics. Alternatively, as with the mice, patients' GI tracts might be populated with antibiotic-degrading bacteria.

One weakness of the strategy is that while it could protect against acquiring a GI infection, C. difficile, for example, it could not be used to combat such an infection.

"The recognition of the importance of an intact and diverse microbiome has probably best been demonstrated by the successful treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis by fecal microbiota transplantation, or 'stool transplant,'" says Stiefel. "If you have an intact intestinal microbiome, you simply are going to be resistant to acquiring many types of infection."

"If we can find ways to preserve the microbiome in hospitalized patients who are receiving antibiotics, we are on our way to preventing a large proportion of hospital-acquired infections," says Stiefel.

###

The manuscript can be found online at http://bit.ly/asmtip0614d. The final version of the article is scheduled for the August 2014 issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy is a publication of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). The ASM is the largest single life science society, composed of over 39,000 scientists and health professionals. Its mission is to advance the microbiological sciences as a vehicle for understanding life processes and to apply and communicate this knowledge for the improvement of health and environmental and economic well-being worldwide.

Jim Sliwa | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.asmusa.org

Further reports about: ASM Clostridium antibiotic enzyme pathogens resistance transplant

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New discoveries predict ability to forecast dementia from single molecule
12.12.2018 | UT Southwestern Medical Center

nachricht Pain: Perception and motor impulses arise in the brain independently of one another
12.12.2018 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: An energy-efficient way to stay warm: Sew high-tech heating patches to your clothes

Personal patches could reduce energy waste in buildings, Rutgers-led study says

What if, instead of turning up the thermostat, you could warm up with high-tech, flexible patches sewn into your clothes - while significantly reducing your...

Im Focus: Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells

A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth – this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel’s Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in “Cell Reports”, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.

The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the...

Im Focus: New Foldable Drone Flies through Narrow Holes in Rescue Missions

A research team from the University of Zurich has developed a new drone that can retract its propeller arms in flight and make itself small to fit through narrow gaps and holes. This is particularly useful when searching for victims of natural disasters.

Inspecting a damaged building after an earthquake or during a fire is exactly the kind of job that human rescuers would like drones to do for them. A flying...

Im Focus: Topological material switched off and on for the first time

Key advance for future topological transistors

Over the last decade, there has been much excitement about the discovery, recognised by the Nobel Prize in Physics only two years ago, that there are two types...

Im Focus: Researchers develop method to transfer entire 2D circuits to any smooth surface

What if a sensor sensing a thing could be part of the thing itself? Rice University engineers believe they have a two-dimensional solution to do just that.

Rice engineers led by materials scientists Pulickel Ajayan and Jun Lou have developed a method to make atom-flat sensors that seamlessly integrate with devices...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

EGU 2019 meeting: Media registration now open

06.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

UNLV study unlocks clues to how planets form

13.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Live from the ocean research vessel Atlantis

13.12.2018 | Earth Sciences

Stanford researcher deciphers flows that help bacteria feed and organize biofilms

13.12.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>