Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UZH scientists predict activity of human genes

18.12.2015

Genetically identical sibling cells do not always behave the same way. So far this has been attributed to random molecular reactions. Now systems biologists of the University of Zurich have discovered an overlooked consequence of the spatial separation of cells into a nucleus and a cytoplasm. Building on top of this insight they could predict with supercomputers the activity of genes in individual human cells.

Genetically identical cells do not always behave the same way. According to the accepted theory, the reason are random molecular processes – known as random noise. For decades this view has been underpinned by numerous experiments and theoretical models.

Now the system biologists of the University of Zurich have made a momentous discovery: The spatial separation of human cells into a nucleus and cytoplasm creates some kind of passive filter. This filter suppresses the random noise and enables human cells to precisely regulate the activity of individual genes.

Observed more randomness in the nucleus

While the observations of Lucas Pelkmans and his team initially seemed at odds with current text-book knowledge, a second look revealed the missing explanation. During the activation of genes, the genetic information, which has been stored in DNA, becomes transcribed to messenger RNA.

“We could perfectly predict the messenger RNA in the cytoplasm and discovered much more randomness within the nucleus” explains Nico Battich, coauthor and PhD student at Institute of Molecular Biology. “One could envision the nucleus to act as a leaky bucket that on the one hand withholds messenger RNA, but on the other hand enables a delayed and even outflow. Thus the activity of genes in the cytoplasm becomes highly robust against random noise during the formation of messenger RNA in the nucleus.”

Smallest physiological details made visible

Thanks to their novel method, the Zurich scientists were the first ones who could study that many human genes. They managed to detect every single molecule that is produced by active genes. ”Previously one could only study few genes and in many cases these genes had to be genetically modified by researchers” says PhD student Thomas Stoeger.

“We realized that the activity of genes strongly differed between single cells, but could at the same time predict the activity for every single cell by visualizing subtle physiological details with microscopic dyes.”

The findings of the Zurich scientists impact several fields. “For example, evolutionary biology, where the spatial separation of cells marks a milestone in the emergence of intelligent life. But also biotechnology, where a precise control over artificial genes is desirable, and human medicine, if it should become possible to predict which malignant cells will respond to drugs.” concludes Prof. Lucas Pelkmans.

Literature:
Nico Battich, Thomas Stoeger, Lucas Pelkmans. Control of Transcript Variability in Single Mammalian Cells. Cell. December x, 2015. Doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.018

Contact:
Prof. Lucas Pelkmans
Institute of Molecular Life Sciences
University of Zurich
Phone +41 44 635 31 23
E-mail: lucas.pelkmans@imls.uzh.ch

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mediadesk.uzh.ch/index_en.html

Melanie Nyfeler | Universität Zürich

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria
22.03.2019 | Harvard University

nachricht Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack
22.03.2019 | Rice University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The taming of the light screw

DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.

The nonlinear process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is one of the cornerstones of attosecond science (an attosecond is a billionth of a...

Im Focus: Magnetic micro-boats

Nano- and microtechnology are promising candidates not only for medical applications such as drug delivery but also for the creation of little robots or flexible integrated sensors. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have created magnetic microparticles, with a newly developed method, that could pave the way for building micro-motors or guiding drugs in the human body to a target, like a tumor. The preparation of such structures as well as their remote-control can be regulated using magnetic fields and therefore can find application in an array of domains.

The magnetic properties of a material control how this material responds to the presence of a magnetic field. Iron oxide is the main component of rust but also...

Im Focus: Self-healing coating made of corn starch makes small scratches disappear through heat

Due to the special arrangement of its molecules, a new coating made of corn starch is able to repair small scratches by itself through heat: The cross-linking via ring-shaped molecules makes the material mobile, so that it compensates for the scratches and these disappear again.

Superficial micro-scratches on the car body or on other high-gloss surfaces are harmless, but annoying. Especially in the luxury segment such surfaces are...

Im Focus: Stellar cartography

The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.

A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...

Im Focus: Heading towards a tsunami of light

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International Modelica Conference with 330 visitors from 21 countries at OTH Regensburg

11.03.2019 | Event News

Selection Completed: 580 Young Scientists from 88 Countries at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

01.03.2019 | Event News

LightMAT 2019 – 3rd International Conference on Light Materials – Science and Technology

28.02.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Open source software helps researchers extract key insights from huge sensor datasets

22.03.2019 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>