Scientists from the Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) in cooperation with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, discovered a new mechanism that is important for cells to survive starvation. The protein NUFIP1, which normally occurs in the cell nucleus, migrates into the cytoplasm when there is a lack of nutrients and binds to ribosomes, which are then marked for degradation; an important survival strategy of the cell to ensure the maintenance of the cell upon starvation. The research results were now published in the renowned journal Science.
The recycling program of cells is autophagy; a fundamental component of the cellular quality control and extremely important for maintaining cell functionality. Degradation of misfolded proteins or damaged organelles through autophagy prevents negative effects on the cell and allows nutrients recycling so they can be used by the cell to build up new components. Errors in this recycling process can lead to cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and increased susceptibility to infections, and they can also affect ageing.
Under normal conditions, autophagy takes place only to a small extent; however it is activated under nutrient starvation, e.g. deficiency of amino acids. It is known, that the “mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1” (mTORC1), the major nutrient-sensitive regulator of growth, plays an important role in this process. It regulates the flow of macromolecules intended for degradation to the "stomach of the cell", the lysosomes. How this intracellular regulation works under starvation and what proteins play a role in it, are still open questions.
Insights into the recycling process of the cell
Researchers from the lab of Alessandro Ori at the Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) followed these questions in cooperation with the lab of David M. Sabatini from the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. They performed quantitative proteomic analyses to analyze the lysosomal proteome under conditions that inhibit the mTORC1 pathway. They examined lysosomes in nutrient-replete media (full media), under conditions of starvation, through deficiency of amino acids and glucose, and under conditions that inhibit mTOR kinase through torin1.
“Thanks to the LysoIP method that was developed in the Sabatini Lab and the advanced mass spectrometry platform of the FLI core facility proteomics, we were able to profile the dynamics of the lysosomal proteome under different conditions of mTORC1 activation”, tells Dr. Alessandro Ori, Junior Group Leader at the FLI. The international team identified more than 800 proteins associated with lysosomes. “Of these many proteins, the Nuclear fragile X mental retardation-interacting protein 1 (NUFIP1) piqued our interest, because its lysosomal abundance increased upon the inhibition of mTORC1 pathway.”
Migration of NUFIP1 upon mTOR inhibition
Previous work indicates that NUFIP1 is largely a nuclear protein but it has also been observed in the cytoplasm of some cell types. With biochemical assays and imaging studies the collaborators from MIT were able to confirm that the inhibition of mTOR caused NUFIP1 to translocate from the nucleus to autophagosomes and lysosomes. “These are both cell components that play an important role in autophagy”, underlines Dr. Ori.
NUFIP1 is important to survive starvation
With these “snapshots into the cells” the researchers were able to identify this new role of the protein NUFIP1, as it was previously unknown that it is also associated with lysosomes. Upon starvation NUFIP1 binds intact ribosomes and targets them for degradation in the lysosomes. Ribosomes, the “protein factory” of cells, are large complexes made up of proteins and RNAs. They are among the most abundant components of cells and, as such, they represent one of the most important reserves of nutrients. “We were now able to show that NUFIP1 is necessary for ribosomal degradation upon starvation in human and mouse cells and with that ensures the survival of the cell in hunger situations", emphasizes Dr. Ori.
The results of the research team from Germany and the USA underline that the protein NUFIP1 plays an important role in the selective autophagy of ribosomes in cases of nutrient starvation in mammalian cells. This work exemplifies how the study of the dynamics of organelle proteomes can reveal fundamental mechanisms that are relevant for biomedical and aging research.
NUFIP1 is a ribosome receptor for starvation-induced ribophagy. Gregory A. Wyant, Monther Abu-Remaileh, Evgeni M. Frenkel, Nouf N. Laqtom, Vimisha Dharamdasani, Caroline A. Lewis, Sze Ham Chan, Ivonne Heinze, Alessandro Ori, David M. Sabatini. Science 2018, eaar2663, DOI: 10.1126/science.aar2663. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2018/04/25/science.aar2663?rss=1
Dr. Kerstin Wagner
Press and Public Relations
The Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) – upon its inauguration in 2004 – was the first German research organization dedicated to research on the process of aging. More than 330 employees from over 30 nations explore the molecular mechanisms underlying aging processes and age-associated diseases. For more information, please visit http://www.leibniz-fli.de.
The Leibniz Association connects 93 independent research institutions that range in focus from the natural, engineering and environmental sciences via economics, spatial and social sciences to the humanities. Leibniz Institutes address issues of social, economic and ecological relevance. They conduct knowledge-driven and applied basic research, maintain scientific infrastructure and provide research-based services. The Leibniz Association identifies focus areas for knowledge transfer to policy-makers, academia, business and the public. Leibniz Institutes collaborate intensively with universities – in the form of “WissenschaftsCampi” (thematic partnerships between university and non-university research institutes), for example – as well as with industry and other partners at home and abroad. They are subject to an independent evaluation procedure that is unparalleled in its transparency. Due to the institutes’ importance for the country as a whole, they are funded jointly by the Federation and the Länder, employing some 19,100 individuals, including 9,900 researchers. The entire budget of all the institutes is approximately 1.9 billion EUR. See http://www.leibniz-association.eu for more information.
http://www.leibniz-fli.de - Website Leibniz Institute on Aging - Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) Jena
Dr. Kerstin Wagner | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
New sensor detects rare metals used in smartphones
24.04.2019 | Penn State
Controlling instabilities gives closer look at chemistry from hypersonic vehicles
24.04.2019 | University of Illinois College of Engineering
The human eye is particularly sensitive to green, but less sensitive to blue and red. Chemists led by Hubert Huppertz at the University of Innsbruck have now developed a new red phosphor whose light is well perceived by the eye. This increases the light yield of white LEDs by around one sixth, which can significantly improve the energy efficiency of lighting systems.
Light emitting diodes or LEDs are only able to produce light of a certain colour. However, white light can be created using different colour mixing processes.
Researchers led by Francesca Ferlaino from the University of Innsbruck and the Austrian Academy of Sciences report in Physical Review X on the observation of supersolid behavior in dipolar quantum gases of erbium and dysprosium. In the dysprosium gas these properties are unprecedentedly long-lived. This sets the stage for future investigations into the nature of this exotic phase of matter.
Supersolidity is a paradoxical state where the matter is both crystallized and superfluid. Predicted 50 years ago, such a counter-intuitive phase, featuring...
A stellar flare 10 times more powerful than anything seen on our sun has burst from an ultracool star almost the same size as Jupiter
A localization phenomenon boosts the accuracy of solving quantum many-body problems with quantum computers which are otherwise challenging for conventional computers. This brings such digital quantum simulation within reach on quantum devices available today.
Quantum computers promise to solve certain computational problems exponentially faster than any classical machine. “A particularly promising application is the...
The technology could revolutionize how information travels through data centers and artificial intelligence networks
Engineers at the University of California, Berkeley have built a new photonic switch that can control the direction of light passing through optical fibers...
17.04.2019 | Event News
15.04.2019 | Event News
09.04.2019 | Event News
24.04.2019 | Life Sciences
24.04.2019 | Life Sciences
24.04.2019 | Life Sciences