Mitochondria in neurons are the powerhouses that generate energy to execute cellular functions and regulate neuronal survival under conditions of stress.
Collaborative research by Prof. Vidita Vaidya and Prof. Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam groups at TIFR, along with Dr. Ashok Vaidya, at Medical Research Centre, Kasturba Health Society, has demonstrated an unusual function for the neurotransmitter serotonin, in the generation of new mitochondria--a process called mitochondrial biogenesis--in neurons, accompanied by increase in cellular respiration and ATP, the energy currency of the cell.
These effects of serotonin involve the serotonin2A receptor and master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, SIRT1 and PGC-1α. Serotonin reduces toxic reactive oxygen species in neurons, boosts anti-oxidant enzymes and buffers neurons from the damaging effects of cellular stress.
This study (Fanibunda et al., 2019), appearing in the international journal PNAS, uncovers an unprecedented role for serotonin in energy production in neurons directly impacting how neurons handle stress.
Mitochondrial function in neurons is vital in determining how neurons cope with stress and the trajectory of aging.
This work provides exciting evidence that the neurotransmitter serotonin can directly influence neuronal powerplants, thus impacting the manner in which neurons grapple with stress.
This work identifies novel drug targets for treating mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons, with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.
Vidita A. Vaidya | EurekAlert!
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Researchers from the Universities of Münster (Germany), Oxford and Exeter (both UK) have succeeded in developing a piece of hardware which could pave the way for creating computers which resemble the human brain. The scientists produced a chip containing a network of artificial neurons that works with light and can imitate the behaviour of neurons and their synapses. The network is able to “learn” information and use this as a basis for computing and recognizing patterns. As the system functions solely with light and not with electrons, it can process data many times faster than traditional systems. The study is published in “Nature”.
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An international collaboration with participation of the University of Bern has demonstrated for the first time in an interference experiment that antimatter particles also behave as waves besides having particle properties. This success paves the way to a new field of investigations of antimatter.
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A photodetector converts light into an electrical signal, causing the light to be lost. Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. It can be used to further investigate the quantum properties of light.
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It is only an inconspicuous piece of paper, but it is an important milestone for autonomous driving: At the end of 2018 the three partners from the joint research project RadarGlass applied for a patent for an innovative radar system. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT from Aachen, the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP from Dresden and the Institute of High Frequency Technology IHF of RWTH Aachen University have developed a coating process chain that enables radar sensors to be integrated in car headlights. After almost two years in development they have manufactured a working prototype.
Completely autonomous vehicles pose an enormous challenge for sensor technology because, in principle, the supporting system must hear, see and feel better...
Physics and Chemistry scholars from Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) have invented a new method which could speed up the drug discovery process and lead to the production of higher quality medicinal drugs which are purer and have no side effects. The technique, which is a world-first breakthrough, uses a specific nanomaterial layer to detect the target molecules in pharmaceuticals and pesticides in just five minutes.
The new HKBU invention can be applied to the drug discovery process, as well as the production and quality control stages of pharmaceutical manufacturing. It...
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