Investigators from around the country came to Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) on Friday, May 7, to share their knowledge of the burgeoning young field of microRNAs. These small non-coding nucleic acids turn off proteins and have been implicated in viral infection, cancer, cardiovascular disease, HIV and numerous other conditions.
"The discovery that small RNAs could shut down gene expression was revolutionary," said Tariq Rana, Ph.D., who directs the RNA Biology program at Sanford-Burnham. Dr. Rana organized the symposium with Sanford-Burnham colleagues Rolf Bodmer, Ph.D., and Sumit Chanda, Ph.D.
The symposium, entitled RNAi and microRNA Regulatory Functions, featured a who's who of RNA biologists sharing their understanding of how these small RNAs regulate gene function and contribute to disease.
One of the speakers, Shiv Grewal, Ph.D., senior investigator at the National Cancer Institute, works to understand how RNAi regulates chromatin, the combination of proteins and DNA that makes up chromosomes. Dr. Grewal's research has shown that RNAi machinery stabilizes these critical structures. "If you disrupt this process, chromosomes will not segregate properly," said Dr. Grewal. "After cell division, one cell will get more and the other will get less, a very common feature in cancer cells."
Deepak Srivastava, M.D., a pediatric cardiologist and director of the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, has been working to understand how the heart develops. His research has shown that microRNAs and proteins work in complementary networks to help progenitor cells choose what kind of heart cells to become. "There is a transcriptional network that controls cell fate decisions in the heart," said Dr. Srivastava. "Overlaid on that is a translational network controlled by microRNAs that controls how much protein is made of those same transcription factors. But also, those transcription factors control the dose of microRNAs. It's a very coordinated network."
Amy Pasquinelli, Ph.D., associate professor at UC, San Diego, is working to determine how microRNAs bind to their target. "We want to understand the pairing rules," said Dr. Pasquinelli. "If we can understand those, we can use bioinformatics to predict, simply by looking at the microRNA sequence, where it's going to bind, what gene it will target and what will be the ultimate result."
Other researchers shared their work on a number of topics, including the fundamental roles of microRNAs in biology and epigenetics; developing cutting-edge technologies that use small RNAs to investigate disease processes; high-resolution structures of RNAi machinery; RNA-mediated regulation of herpes infections; and RNA-based treatments for neurodegenerative disorders, AIDS, cancer and metabolic diseases.
Other speakers included: Norbert Perrimon, Ph.D., HHMI Investigator, Harvard Medical School; Bryan Cullen, Ph.D., James B. Duke Professor of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, Director, Duke University Center for Virology; Dinshaw Patel, Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Chair in Experimental Therapeutics, Structural Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Danesh Moazed, Ph.D., HHMI Investigator, Harvard Medical School; John Rossi, Ph.D., Lidlow Family Research Chair, professor, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at City of Hope; Peter Linsley, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer, Regulus Therapeutics; and Beverly Davidson, Ph.D., professor of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa.
About Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (formerly Burnham Institute for Medical Research) is dedicated to discovering the fundamental molecular causes of disease and devising the innovative therapies of tomorrow. Sanford-Burnham, with operations in California and Florida, is one of the fastest-growing research institutes in the country. The Institute ranks among the top independent research institutions nationally for NIH grant funding and among the top organizations worldwide for its research impact. From 1999 – 2009, Sanford-Burnham ranked #1 worldwide among all types of organizations in the fields of biology and biochemistry for the impact of its research publications, defined by citations per publication, according to the Institute for Scientific Information. According to government statistics, Sanford-Burnham ranks #2 nationally among all organizations in capital efficiency of generating patents, defined by the number of patents issued per grant dollars awarded.
Sanford-Burnham utilizes a unique, collaborative approach to medical research and has established major research programs in cancer, neurodegeneration, diabetes, and infectious, inflammatory, and childhood diseases. The Institute is especially known for its world-class capabilities in stem cell research and drug discovery technologies. Sanford-Burnham is a nonprofit public benefit corporation. For more information, please visit www.sanfordburnham.org.
Josh Baxt | EurekAlert!
Seeing on the Quick: New Insights into Active Vision in the Brain
15.08.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
New Approach to Treating Chronic Itch
15.08.2018 | Universität Zürich
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur
What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
25.07.2018 | Event News
15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
15.08.2018 | Earth Sciences
15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy