Few conditions are more detrimental to human brains than the one popularly referred to as mad cow disease. But now theres reason to suspect that the protein which, when malformed, causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cows and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people, might also be necessary for healthy brain function. Researchers from Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts General Hospital have discovered that the normal form of this detrimental protein may actually help the brain create neurons, those electricity-conducting cells that make cognition possible.
"Its been difficult to understand why this prion protein, which when malformed subjects us to this horrible disease, is so abundant in our brains in the first place," says Whitehead Member Susan Lindquist, who is also a professor of biology at MIT. Along with Jeffrey Macklis of Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, she is co-senior author on this Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences paper, scheduled to be published the week of February 13. "Weve known for years what happens when this protein goes wrong. Now were starting to see what its normal form does right."
For over ten years, researchers have known that a protein called PrP causes mad cow disease and its human equivalent, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, when it forms incorrectly. PrP is a prion, a class of proteins that has the unusual ability to recruit other proteins to change their shape. (PrP is shorthand for "prion protein".) This is significant, because a proteins form determines its function. When a prion changes shape, or "misfolds," it creates a cascade where neighboring proteins all assume that particular conformation. In some organisms, such as yeast cells, this process can be harmless or even beneficial. But in mammals, it can lead to the fatal brain lesions that characterize diseases such as Creutzfeld-Jakob.
David Cameron | EurekAlert!
Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells
12.12.2018 | Universität Basel
Smelling the forest – not the trees
12.12.2018 | Universität Konstanz
A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth – this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel’s Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in “Cell Reports”, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.
The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the...
A research team from the University of Zurich has developed a new drone that can retract its propeller arms in flight and make itself small to fit through narrow gaps and holes. This is particularly useful when searching for victims of natural disasters.
Inspecting a damaged building after an earthquake or during a fire is exactly the kind of job that human rescuers would like drones to do for them. A flying...
Over the last decade, there has been much excitement about the discovery, recognised by the Nobel Prize in Physics only two years ago, that there are two types...
What if a sensor sensing a thing could be part of the thing itself? Rice University engineers believe they have a two-dimensional solution to do just that.
Rice engineers led by materials scientists Pulickel Ajayan and Jun Lou have developed a method to make atom-flat sensors that seamlessly integrate with devices...
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) succeed in important further development on the way to quantum Computers.
Quantum computers one day should be able to solve certain computing problems much faster than a classical computer. One of the most promising approaches is...
12.12.2018 | Event News
10.12.2018 | Event News
06.12.2018 | Event News
12.12.2018 | Health and Medicine
12.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
12.12.2018 | Health and Medicine