Eight new rare isotopes discovered in total
Researchers from Michigan State University and the RIKEN Nishina Center in Japan discovered eight new rare isotopes of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, argon, potassium, scandium and, most importantly, calcium.
Researchers from Michigan State University and the RIKEN Nishina Center in Japan have discovered eight new rare isotopes, including the heaviest known calcium atom, calcium-60. The illustration shows a plot used to identify the different nuclei produced in the measurement. Z is the number of protons and A/q is the ratio of the number of protons and neutrons over the charge. The calcium isotopes are indicated from the last stable calcium-48 out to calcium isotopes that can only be reached with FRIB. All nuclei to the right of the red line have been observed for the first time in this measurement.
Credit: National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory
These are the heaviest isotopes of these elements ever found.
Isotopes are different forms of elements found in nature. Isotopes of each element contain the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. The more neutrons that are added to an element, the "heavier" it is. The heaviest isotope of an element represents the limit of how many neutrons the nucleus can hold. Also, isotopes of the same element have different physical properties. "Stable" isotopes live forever, while some heavy isotopes might only live for a few seconds. Some even heavier ones might barely exist fractions of a second before disintegrating.
The most interesting short-lived isotopes synthesized during a recent experiment at RIKEN's Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) were calcium-59 and calcium-60, which are now the most neutron-laden calcium isotopes known to science. The nucleus of calcium-60 has 20 protons and twice as many neutrons. That's 12 more neutrons than the heaviest of the stable calcium isotopes, calcium-48. This stable isotope disintegrates after living for hundreds of quintillion years, or 40 trillion times the age of the universe. In contrast, calcium-60 lives for a few thousandths of a second.
Oleg Tarasov, a staff physicist at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at MSU, is a spokesperson for the experiment.
Tarasov explained that proving the existence of a certain isotope of an element can advance scientists' understanding of the nuclear force. This is a longstanding quest in nuclear science.
"At the heart of an atom, protons and neutrons are held together by the nuclear force, forming the atomic nucleus", Tarasov said. "Scientists continue to research what combinations of protons and neutrons can exist in nature even if it is only for fleeting fractions of a second."
Alexandra Gade, professor of physics at MSU and NSCL chief scientist, is interested in the comparison of the new discoveries to nuclear models. In a way, these models paint a picture of the nucleus at different resolutions.
"Some of these models that describe nuclei at the highest resolution scale predict that 20 protons and 40 neutrons will not hold together to form Ca-60", Gade said. "The discovery of calcium-60 will prompt theorists to identify missing ingredients in their models."
Two of the other new isotopes of sulfur and chlorine, S-49 and Cl-52, were not predicted to exist by a number of models that paint a lower resolution picture of nuclei. Their ingredients can now be refined as well.
Creating and identifying rare isotopes is the nuclear-physics version of a formidable needle-in-a-haystack problem. To synthesize these new isotopes, researchers accelerated an intense beam of heavy zinc particles onto a block of beryllium. In the resulting debris of the collision, with a minuscule chance, a rare isotope such as calcium-60 is formed. The intense zinc beam that enabled the discovery of calcium-59 and calcium-60 was provided by the RIBF, which is presently home to the world's most powerful accelerator facility in the field. The isotopes calcium-57 and 58 were discovered in 2009 at NSCL.
In the future, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University will allow scientists might be able to make calcium-68 or even calcium-70, which may be the heaviest calcium isotopes.
The research was supported by the National Science Foundation and Michigan State University.
The National Science Foundation's National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory is a center for nuclear and accelerator science research and education. It is the nation's premier scientific user facility dedicated to the production and study of rare isotopes.
MSU is establishing FRIB as a new scientific user facility for the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. Under construction on campus and operated by MSU, FRIB will enable scientists to make discoveries about the properties of rare isotopes in order to better understand the physics of nuclei, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental interactions, and applications for society, including in medicine, homeland security and industry.
Microscope measures muscle weakness
16.11.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
Good preparation is half the digestion
16.11.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Stoffwechselforschung
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.
Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...
Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.
Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...
Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.
In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...
On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.
When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure
Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...
09.11.2018 | Event News
06.11.2018 | Event News
23.10.2018 | Event News
16.11.2018 | Health and Medicine
16.11.2018 | Life Sciences
16.11.2018 | Life Sciences