What caused the end of a warm climate phase and an expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet 14 million years ago? This is the question addressed by Kiel and Bremen palaeoclimatologists in an article for the latest issue of Nature (24/11/05). Their research uncovered a temporal link between a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO²) levels on earth, ice sheet formation and global cooling. The "global cooling" that took place 14 million years ago is attributed by Dr. Ann Holbourn, Professor Wolfgang Kuhnt, Professor Michael Schulz and Dr. Helmut Erlenkeuser to changes in the marine carbon cycle, associated with variations in Earth’s orbit and tilt.
Kuhnt: "We know that the orbital situation, i.e. the path followed by the Earth around the Sun, changes regularly. One such change occurred during the global cooling period 14 million years ago, bringing with it a period of cool Antarctic summers. The Antarctic ice sheet was no longer melting down in summer and began to grow steadily. For the first time we can reconstruct in great detail the history of this glacial expansion, which took place in about 80,000 years, a short time in geological terms.”
Researchers at the Institute for Geosciences of the Christian-Albrechts-Universität in Kiel and their colleague from DFG Research Center Ocean Margins in Bremen studied marine sediments from two cores in the eastern and western subtropical Pacific. The analysis of oxygen and carbon isotopes in the calcite shells of tiny organisms (foraminifers) living at the sea floor allowed to track changes in ice volume and carbon dioxide levels. The team investigated an interval of about two million years with a sampling resolution of 4,000 years.
Susanne Schuck | alfa
The pace at which the world’s permafrost soils are warming
16.01.2019 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung
Using satellites to measure rates of ice mass loss in glaciers
16.01.2019 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state.
In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken...
Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.
It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:
The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.
One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...
Just in time for Christmas, a Mars-analogue mission in Morocco, coordinated by the Robotics Innovation Center of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) as part of the SRC project FACILITATORS, has been successfully completed. SRC, the Strategic Research Cluster on Space Robotics Technologies, is a program of the European Union to support research and development in space technologies. From mid-November to mid-December 2018, a team of more than 30 scientists from 11 countries tested technologies for future exploration of Mars and Moon in the desert of the Maghreb state.
Close to the border with Algeria, the Erfoud region in Morocco – known to tourists for its impressive sand dunes – offered ideal conditions for the four-week...
Research opens doors in photonic quantum information processing, optical signal processing and microwave photonics
Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new integrated photonics platform that can...
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