Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New monitoring system identifies carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning

20.04.2012
Researchers have developed a new monitoring technique that distinguishes emissions from man-made fossil fuels in the atmosphere from other gases, a technique that likely could be used to monitor the effectiveness of measures regulating greenhouse gases.

The team examined six years-worth of atmospheric gas measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases, taken by aircraft every two weeks. Their method allowed them to separate CO2 derived from fossil fuels from CO2 being emitted by biological sources, such as plant respiration, said Scott Lehman, a senior research associate at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who led the study with John Miller, a research associate at the university.

The separation was made possible by the fact that CO2 released from burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas has no carbon-14, a radioactive form of carbon that is constantly forming in Earth's atmosphere. Because carbon-14 is radioactive, it decays, or transforms, into another, nonradioactive element over time. Half of a given amount of the substance decays every 5,700 years so fossil fuels, which are derived from remains of plants and other organic matter that accumulated millions of years ago, no longer contain the radioactive carbon.

In contrast, CO2 emitted from current biological sources is relatively rich in carbon-14. It's a significant enough difference for atmospheric scientists to detect, Lehman said. In the long run, measuring carbon-14 in the atmosphere offers the possibility to directly track country and state emissions of fossil-fuel CO2, said Miller. The technique would be an improvement over traditional, "accounting-based" methods of estimating emission rates of CO2 and other gases, which generally rely on reports from particular countries or regions regarding the use of coal, oil, and natural gas, he said.

"While the accounting-based approach is probably accurate at global scales, the uncertainties rise for smaller-scale regions," said Miller, also with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder. "And as CO2 emissions targets become more widespread, there may be a greater temptation to under-report. But we'll be able to see through that."

A paper on the subject was published April 19 in the Journal of Geophysical Research- Atmospheres, a publication of the American Geophysical Union.

The researchers also measured concentrations of 22 other atmospheric gases tied to human activities. One surprise in the study was that the researchers detected continued emissions of methyl chloroform and several other gases banned from production in the United States. Such observations emphasize the importance of independent monitoring, since the detection of such emissions could be overlooked by the widely used accounting-based estimation techniques, said Stephen Montzka, with NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, who worked on the study.

Fossil fuel emissions have driven Earth's atmospheric CO2 from concentrations of about 280 parts per million in the early 1800s to about 390 parts per million today, Miller said. The vast majority of climate scientists believe higher concentrations of the greenhouse gas CO2 in Earth's atmosphere are directly leading to rising temperatures on the planet.

"We think the approach offered by this study can increase the accuracy of emissions detection and verification for fossil fuel combustion and a host of other man-made gases," Lehman said. He added that using such a method involving carbon-14 has been supported by the National Academy of Sciences and could be an invaluable tool for monitoring greenhouse gases by federal agencies like NOAA.

Notes for Journalists Journalists and public information officers (PIOs) of educational and scientific institutions who have registered with AGU can download a PDF copy of this paper in press by clicking on this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JD017048 Or, you may order a copy of the final paper by emailing your request to Kate Ramsayer at kramsayer@agu.org. Please provide your name, the name of your publication, and your phone number.

Title: "Linking emissions of fossil fuel CO2 and other anthropogenic trace gases using atmospheric 14CO2"

Authors:
John B. Miller: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA and
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado Boulder,

Boulder, Colorado, USA;

Scott J. Lehman: Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Boulder,

Boulder, Colorado, USA;

Stephen A. Montzka: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA;

Colm Sweeney, Benjamin R. Miller and Anna Karion: NOAA Earth System Research
Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA, and Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental

Science, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA;

Chad Wolak: Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder,

Colorado, USA;

Ed J. Dlugokencky: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA;

John Southon: Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, California,

USA;

Jocelyn C. Turnbull: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA,
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado Boulder,

Boulder, Colorado, USA;

Pieter P. Tans: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Contact information for the authors:
Scott Lehman, Phone: +1 (303) 492-8980, Email: Scott.Lehman@colorado.edu
John Miller, Phone: +1 (303) 497-7739, Email: John.B.Miller@noaa.gov

Kate Ramsayer | American Geophysical Union
Further information:
http://www.agu.org

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht New research calculates capacity of North American forests to sequester carbon
16.07.2018 | University of California - Santa Cruz

nachricht Scientists discover Earth's youngest banded iron formation in western China
12.07.2018 | University of Alberta

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microscopic trampoline may help create networks of quantum computers

17.07.2018 | Information Technology

In borophene, boundaries are no barrier

17.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

The role of Sodium for the Enhancement of Solar Cells

17.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>