Roses are one of the leading cut flowers in the global floriculture trade. In the last few years, cut flower consumption and the market for high-quality flowers has increased in Pakistan as a result of the country's rapid economic growth, improved living standards, enhanced access to electronic media, and increasing demand from the country's growing hospitality industry.
In Pakistan, where seasonable climatic conditions provide ideal environments for cut flowers, rose production generates employment opportunities in rural areas where few other jobs exist. But industry challenges, including a lack of standardized production techniques, limited availability of greenhouses, and lack of professional education for growers, are delaying efforts to put Pakistan on the map as a cut flower exporter. A study published in HortTechnology reported on the present status and future prospects of cut rose flower production and postharvest management in Punjab, Pakistan.
The researchers found that although cut roses were the leading flower crop in the area, production systems and practices were outdated and primitive, and the quality of cut stems produced was not acceptable in international markets.
While all of the growers interviewed for the study reported that they sold their products in local markets in Pakistan, none said they exported their flowers. Producers indicated that they were limited to local sales because of factors such as lack of cooperation from government organizations, ignorance of international standards, and poor-quality production. "The growers with limited or no education felt that their product quality was too low to allow exporting, whereas more educated growers felt that the lack of support from the government prevented them from exporting", said Iftikhar Ahmad, an assistant professor in the Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan (who conducted the survey) and John Dole, a professor in the Department of Horticultural Science at North Carolina State University, and corresponding author of the study. Ahmad, Dole, and research colleagues from the Institute of Horticultural Sciences at the University of Agriculture in Faisalabad said that Pakistan's rose growers need more training in production and postharvest management to increase their product quality to international standards.
The research revealed several positive trends in the cut rose businesses, finding that more than half of growers (52%) entered the business during the last five years and 30% of the study's growers had been in business over 10 years. "That almost half of the producers started growing roses in the last five years is a positive sign for development of the rose industry as a non-traditional high value crop to incorporate into traditional wheat–rice or wheat–cotton cropping pattern in the province. Experienced growers were maintaining plants in production for a longer period as compared with newer producers", the scientists explained.
Growing conditions pose unique challenges for Pakistan's cut flower growers. Because of the country's hot summer temperatures, good-quality flowers can be produced only from October to March. "Few growers in Pakistan have sufficient capital to afford the construction of greenhouses and the high cost of energy required to operate them. Since most growers have small landholdings, it is unlikely that they can save sufficient capital to construct a greenhouse without support by governmental or other agencies. However, 14-33% of the growers who had been in business more than five years were using greenhouses, indicating that they were successful enough to afford the greenhouses", said Ahmad. The researchers noted that the use of high tunnels may be a lower-cost alternative to greenhouses.
The study concluded that cut rose production has great potential to expand in Pakistan. The team recommended that the industry adopt more modern techniques and innovations and assist growers by providing access to training. Other recommendations included: planting elite cultivars, improving infrastructural facilities, providing interest-free loans, and offering assistance in marketing.
"Although public and private sector negligence has resulted in less than optimum growth of this sector, its potential has now been realized and initiatives are being taken by various organizations for boosting the industry in Pakistan", the authors concluded. They noted that the study can serve as a model for other countries where cut flowers industries are at a similar stage of development.
The complete study and abstract are available on the ASHS HortTechnology electronic journal web site: http://horttech.ashspublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/20/6/1010
Founded in 1903, the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) is the largest organization dedicated to advancing all facets of horticultural research, education, and application. More information at ashs.org
Michael W. Neff | EurekAlert!
Microalgae food for honey bees
12.05.2020 | US Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service
Global trade in soy has major implications for the climate
07.05.2020 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
In living cells, enzymes drive biochemical metabolic processes enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this very ability which allows them to be used as catalysts in biotechnology, for example to create chemical products such as pharmaceutics. Researchers now identified an enzyme that, when illuminated with blue light, becomes catalytically active and initiates a reaction that was previously unknown in enzymatics. The study was published in "Nature Communications".
Enzymes: they are the central drivers for biochemical metabolic processes in every living cell, enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this very...
Early detection of tumors is extremely important in treating cancer. A new technique developed by researchers at the University of California, Davis offers a significant advance in using magnetic resonance imaging to pick out even very small tumors from normal tissue. The work is published May 25 in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
researchers at the University of California, Davis offers a significant advance in using magnetic resonance imaging to pick out even very small tumors from...
Microelectronics as a key technology enables numerous innovations in the field of intelligent medical technology. The Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT coordinates the BMBF cooperative project "I-call" realizing the first electronic system for ultrasound-based, safe and interference-resistant data transmission between implants in the human body.
When microelectronic systems are used for medical applications, they have to meet high requirements in terms of biocompatibility, reliability, energy...
Thomas Heine, Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at TU Dresden, together with his team, first predicted a topological 2D polymer in 2019. Only one year later, an international team led by Italian researchers was able to synthesize these materials and experimentally prove their topological properties. For the renowned journal Nature Materials, this was the occasion to invite Thomas Heine to a News and Views article, which was published this week. Under the title "Making 2D Topological Polymers a reality" Prof. Heine describes how his theory became a reality.
Ultrathin materials are extremely interesting as building blocks for next generation nano electronic devices, as it is much easier to make circuits and other...
Scientists took a leukocyte as the blueprint and developed a microrobot that has the size, shape and moving capabilities of a white blood cell. Simulating a blood vessel in a laboratory setting, they succeeded in magnetically navigating the ball-shaped microroller through this dynamic and dense environment. The drug-delivery vehicle withstood the simulated blood flow, pushing the developments in targeted drug delivery a step further: inside the body, there is no better access route to all tissues and organs than the circulatory system. A robot that could actually travel through this finely woven web would revolutionize the minimally-invasive treatment of illnesses.
A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) in Stuttgart invented a tiny microrobot that resembles a white blood cell...
19.05.2020 | Event News
07.04.2020 | Event News
06.04.2020 | Event News
29.05.2020 | Materials Sciences
29.05.2020 | Materials Sciences
29.05.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering