Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Strong Urban Cores Promote Socializing in the City

16.04.2013
Long commute times and urban areas that leapfrog over open space make it harder for people to socialize, but cities that are decentralized are even worse, University of Utah researchers say in a study published online today in the Journal of Transport Geography.
“We found that decentralization has 10 times the negative impact of fragmentation, and 20 times that of longer commute times,” says Steven Farber, assistant professor of geography at the university. “For planners and policy makers concerned about making our cities more vibrant, it is clear that intensifying development has the most positive effect on social interaction.”

“These data suggest that ideas like converting parking lots to condos, or reducing the size of roads to accommodate cafes that spill out onto the sidewalks, can have social benefits that outweigh the cost of increased traffic,” he notes.

Social interaction – and understanding the factors that enable or diminish it – is important for individual, economic and social well-being.

“Social activities promote the relationships, shared knowledge and experiences that build valuable social capital that will make the cities of the 21st century more successful and globally competitive,” says Farber. “We know from previous research that sprawl and increased use of automobiles are related to reduced social contact, and also that social activities are first to drop out of people’s daily schedules when pressed for time. So, sprawling cities may one day suffer unforeseen consequences when their citizens cannot and do not get together socially.”

Researchers used a new calculation, called social interaction potential, or SIP, to measure opportunities for people to engage in face-to-face socializing. For this study, they focused on calculating the possibilities for people in large metropolitan areas to get together after work, which represents a large percentage of the planned social activities that take place among workers in the United States.

Using census-tract data in each of the 42 largest cities in the United States, they simulated millions of pairs of possible combinations of home and work locations in each city. To that, a time element was added since people don’t have unlimited time to accomplish a given task. In this case, a single, after work time “budget” of 90 minutes was added to the calculations to replicate realistic constraints on the choice to socialize.

The resulting space-time “prism” – which is basically an envelope derived from triangulating home location and workplace with the number of likely gathering places given the time budget – overlays with others to varying degrees. That gives researchers a way to look at possibilities for social interactions in a given city, and also to assess which factors most hinder opportunities for social contacts.

The researchers compared the actual amount of interaction opportunity with the maximum possible, given the size of the city. That allowed them to gauge the SIP efficiency, or how well the urban layout enables people to socialize.

That data were correlated with information on 35 characteristics of each city, such as its area, size of the population, residential and employment densities, travel times and highway density.

Farber relied on a supercomputer at the University of Utah Center for High Performance Computing to crunch the vast amount of data. “Predictably, the math just explodes,” notes Farber, “but it gives us a multidimensional look at the human costs of urban sprawl.”

The 35 city characteristics sorted into the five factors most identifiable with urban sprawl: decentralization, which means the dispersion of population and industry away from a central core; big city, meaning size and density of the population; fragmentation, meaning built areas that are interrupted by open space; polarization, or low mixing of land uses in a given area; and long commute times. Of the five, three – decentralization, fragmentation and commute times – significantly reduced the opportunity for socializing and, of them, decentralization had the strongest effect.

“Now that we have data to measure the connections between sprawl and social contact,” Farber adds, “we are interested in future research that looks at how transportation and land-use patterns might impact social interaction differently throughout a region, asking questions about how that might affect social equity and segregation. For example, who in a city has more or less social interaction potential, and does that affect social segregation and political polarization?”

Valoree Dowell | Newswise
Further information:
http://www.utah.edu

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Sibling differences: Later-borns choose less prestigious programs at university
14.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für demografische Forschung

nachricht Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ
09.11.2017 | Vanderbilt University

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Corporate coworking as a driver of innovation

22.11.2017 | Business and Finance

PPPL scientists deliver new high-resolution diagnostic to national laser facility

22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Quantum optics allows us to abandon expensive lasers in spectroscopy

22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>