Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Supermassive black holes may frequently roam galaxy centers

26.05.2010
Rochester Institute of Technology, Florida Institute of Technology and University of Sussex plumb Hubble data

A team of astronomy researchers at Rochester Institute of Technology, Florida Institute of Technology and University of Sussex in the United Kingdom, find that the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the most massive local galaxy, M87, is not where it was expected. Their research, conducted using the Hubble Space Telescope, concludes that the supermassive black hole in M87 is displaced from the galaxy center.

The most likely cause for this supermassive black hole to be off center is a previous merger between two older, less massive, black holes. "We also find, however, that the iconic M87 jet may have pushed the SMBH away from the galaxy center," says Daniel Batcheldor, Florida Tech assistant professor in the Department of Physics and Space Sciences, who led the investigation.

The study of M87 is part of a wider Hubble Space Telescope project directed by Andrew Robinson, professor of physics at RIT. "What may well be the most interesting thing about this work is the possibility that what we found is a signpost of a black hole merger, which is of interest to people looking for gravitational waves and for people modeling these systems as a demonstration that black holes really do merge," says Robinson. "The theoretical prediction is that when two black holes merge, the newly combined black hole receives a 'kick' due to the emission of gravitational waves, which can displace it from the center of the galaxy."

David Merritt, professor of physics at RIT, adds: "Once kicked, a supermassive black hole can take millions or billions of years to return to rest, especially at the center of a large, diffuse galaxy like M87. So searching for displacements is an effective way to constrain the merger history of galaxies."

Jets, such as the one in M87, are commonly found in a class of objects called Active Galactic Nuclei. It is commonly believed that supermassive black holes can become active as a result of the merger between two galaxies, the in fall of material into the center of the galaxy, and the subsequent merger between their black holes. Therefore, it is very possible that this finding could also be linked to how active galaxies—including quasars, the most luminous objects in the universe—are born and how their jets are formed.

This research will be presented at the American Astronomical Society (AAS) Conference on May 25 in Miami, Fla. It will also be published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Because many galaxies have similar properties to M87, it is likely that supermassive black holes are commonly offset from their host galaxy centers. The potential offsets, however, would be very subtle and researchers would rely on the Hubble Space Telescope to detect them.

"Unfortunately, the highest spatial resolution camera onboard HST could not be revived during the recent servicing mission. This means we have to rely on the huge archive of HST data to find more of these vagrant supermassive black holes, as we did for M87," added Batcheldor.

Regardless of the displacement mechanism, the implication of this result is a necessary shift in the classic supermassive black hole paradigm; no longer can it be assumed that all supermassive black holes reside at the centers of their host galaxies. This may result in some interesting impacts on a number of fundamental astronomical areas, and some interesting questions.

For example, how would an accreting (growing by the gravitational attraction of matter) or quiescent supermassive black hole interact with the surrounding nuclear environment as it moves through the bulge? What are the effects on the standard orientation-based unified model of active galactic nuclei and how have dynamical models of the supermassive black hole mass been centered if the supermassive black hole is quiescent?

Especially thought-provoking, added Eric Perlman, associate professor of physics and space sciences at Florida Tech, is that our own galaxy is expected to merge with the Andromeda galaxy in about three billion years. "The result of that merger will likely be an active elliptical galaxy, similar to M87. Both our galaxy and Andromeda have supermassive black holes in their centers, so our result suggests that after the merger, the supermassive black hole may wander in the galaxy's nucleus for billions of years."

David Axon, dean of mathematical and physical sciences at Sussex, concludes by saying, "In current galaxy formation scenarios galaxies are thought to be assembled by a process of merging. We should therefore expect that binary black holes and post coalescence recoiling black holes, like that in M87, are very common in the cosmos."

Researchers on the project are Daniel Batcheldor and Eric Perlman of Florida Institute of Technology; Andrew Robinson and David Merritt of RIT; and David Axon, dean of mathematical and physical sciences at University of Sussex in the United Kingdom and research professor at RIT. All are authors of the paper, "A Displaced Supermassive Black Hole in M87."

For more information, contact Andrew Robinson at (585) 475-2726 or axrsps@rit.edu, or Daniel Batcheldor at (321) 674-7717 or dbatcheldor@fit.edu. A Web site with more information is also available: http://quasar.astro.fit.edu/~perlman/blackhole/. The research team's paper is available here: http://arXiv.org/abs/1005.2173.

About RIT: Rochester Institute of Technology is internationally recognized for academic leadership in computing, engineering, imaging technology, and fine and applied arts, in addition to unparalleled support services for students with hearing loss. Nearly 16,800 full- and part-time students are enrolled in more than 200 career-oriented and professional programs at RIT, and its cooperative education program is one of the oldest and largest in the nation.

For two decades, U.S. News & World Report has ranked RIT among the nation's leading comprehensive universities. RIT is featured in The Princeton Review's 2010 edition of The Best 371 Colleges and in Barron's Best Buys in Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education recognizes RIT as a "Great College to Work For."

Susan Gawlowicz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rit.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Space radiation won't stop NASA's human exploration
18.10.2017 | NASA/Johnson Space Center

nachricht Study shows how water could have flowed on 'cold and icy' ancient Mars
18.10.2017 | Brown University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Osaka university researchers make the slipperiest surfaces adhesive

18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Space radiation won't stop NASA's human exploration

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Los Alamos researchers and supercomputers help interpret the latest LIGO findings

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>