Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Research Team Discover New Tidal Debris from Colliding Galaxies

10.06.2009
Astronomers are announcing today that they have discovered new tidal debris stripped away from colliding galaxies.

The research will be being presented during a press conference at the 214th annual American Astronomical Society meeting in Pasadena, California by Drs. Jin Koda at Stony Brook University, Long Island, New York; Nick Scoville of California Institute of Technology; Yoshiaki Taniguchi of Ehime University, Ehime, Japan; and, the COSMOS survey team.

New debris images are of special interest since they show the full history of galaxy collisions and resultant starburst activities, which are important in 'growing' galaxies in the early Universe. In this study, new tidal debris were found with 8.2-meter Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The international team took extremely deep exposures of archetypal colliding galaxies, including "the Antennae" galaxies in constellation Corvus (65 million light years away from us), "Arp 220" in constellation Serpens (250 million light years) and "Mrk 231" in constellation Big Dipper (590 million light years), and 10 additional objects. Often seen in public media and textbooks, these galaxies are well-known galaxy collisions.

"We did not expect such enormous debris fields around these famous objects," says Dr. Koda, Assistant Professor of Astronomy at Stony Brook University. "For instance, the Antennae – the name came from its resemblance of insect ‘antennae’ – was discovered early in 18th century by William Herschel, and has been observed repeatedly since then."

Colliding galaxies eventually merge, and become a single galaxy. When the orbit and rotation synchronize, galaxies merge quickly. New tidal tails therefore indicate the quick merging, which could be the trigger of starburst activities in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxy (ULIRG). Further studies and detailed comparison with theoretical model may reveal the process of galaxy formation and starbursts activities in the early Universe.

"Arp 220 is the most famous ULIRG," says Dr. Taniguchi, who is Professor of Ehime University in Japan. "ULIRGs are very likely the dominant mode of cosmic star formation in the early Universe, and Arp 220 is the key object to understand starburst activities in ULIRGs."

"The new images allow us to fully chart the orbital paths of the colliding galaxies before they merge, thus turning back the clock on each merging system," says Dr. Scoville, the Francis L. Moseley professor of astronomy at Caltech. "This is equivalent to finally being able to trace the skid marks on the road when investigating a car wreck."

According to Dr. Koda, the extent of the debris had not been seen in earlier imaging of these famous objects.

"Subaru’s sensitive wide-field camera was necessary to detect and properly analyze this faint, huge, debris," he said. "In fact, most debris are extended a few times bigger than our own Galaxy. We were ambitious to look for unknown debris, but even we were surprised to see the extent of debris in many already famous objects."

Galactic collisions are one of the most critical processes in galaxy formation and evolution in the early Universe. However, not all galactic collisions end up such large tidal debris.

‘The orbit and rotation of colliding galaxies are the keys," says Dr. Koda. "Theory predicts that large debris are produced only when the orbit and galactic rotation synchronize each other. New tidal debris are of significant importance since they put significant constrains on the orbit and history of the galactic collisions."

For more information:
• Dr. Jin Koda
• Assistant Professor at Stony Brook University, New York
• Office: +1-631-632-8063
• Cell: +1-631-624-4661
• Email: jin.koda@stonybrook.edu
• Dr. Nick Scoville
• Professor at California Institute of Technology, California
• Office: +1-626-395-4979
• Email: nzs@astro.caltech.edu
• Dr. Yoshiaki Taniguchi
• Professor at Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Japan
• Office: +81-89-927-9578
• E-mail:tani@cosmos.ehime-u.ac.jp

Media Relations | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.stonybrook.edu
http://www.caltech.edu
http://www.cosmos.ehime-u.ac.jp

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A better way to weigh millions of solitary stars
15.12.2017 | Vanderbilt University

nachricht A chip for environmental and health monitoring
15.12.2017 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>