But more recently dust has started to present opportunities because it emits radiation itself as a consequence of being heated up by nearby stars. Aided by new observing instruments and sophisticated computer software, this radiation enables astronomers to reconstruct what lies behind the dust. Furthermore the dust itself plays a vital role in star formation within galaxies.
The stage was set for dramatic advances in the study of galactic dust in a recent workshop funded by the European Science Foundation (ESF)'s Exploratory Workshop. The big breakthrough is the ability to detect the dust at much higher resolution from its infrared radiation, according to Simone Bianchi, co-convenor of the ESF workshop. "It has been possible to do this since the eighties, but the new instruments have a higher sensitivity," said Bianchi.
At the same time new computer models are making it possible to work out the structure of the galaxy lying behind the dust, even though it cannot be observed directly at any wavelength. The key here is that the dust is acting as a relay for radiation emitted by the stars behind it. The dust absorbs high energy radiation from the stars and then heats up as a result. It then re-emits in the infra red waveband, which can now be detected with sensitive new instruments.
Plans were made at the workshop to use the European Space Agency's new infrared space telescope called Herschel, which will be launched in 2008 and be capable of detecting infrared radiation emitted by distant galactic dust. "The new instruments will allow us to detect dust associated with less dense regions of the interstellar medium," said Bianchi.
Astronomers also hope to learn more about the role played by dust in star formation. As Bianchi pointed out, there is a well established connection between the dust and the gas from which stars are formed. But the detailed relationship is unknown, and will require knowledge about the dust itself, in particular its molecular structure and lifecycle.
The ESF workshop focused mainly on spiral galaxies, because these are heavily obscured by dust. Galaxies are split into three categories by their structure, spiral, elliptical, and irregular. There is less dust in elliptical galaxies, while irregular galaxies are more difficult to model because they lack any orderly structure. "Spiral galaxies can be modelled in a more direct way because of their relatively simple geometry," said Bianchi. "However, recent comparison with observations of dust emission has shown that models may need a higher degree of complexity. This can be achieved now with the advances in computational facilities."
The ESF workshop was well timed to help Europe exploit the full potential of the data that will be obtained from the new instruments. It has already brought together the relevant European groups specialising in spiral galaxies and modelling dust, providing the platform for major advances in the field.
The workshop, held in Ghent, Belgium in May 2007, brought together 29 researchers from 10 different countries. Each year, ESF supports approximately 50 Exploratory Workshops across all scientific domains. These small, interactive group sessions are aimed at opening up new directions in research to explore new fields with a potential impact on developments in science.
Thomas Lau | alfa
Hope to discover sure signs of life on Mars? New research says look for the element vanadium
22.09.2017 | University of Kansas
22.09.2017 | Forschungszentrum MATHEON ECMath
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy