The new results show the intimate connection between star death, which releases material into the interstellar medium (the collection of dust and gas between stars and galaxies), and star birth which gathers up that material.
The AKARI team members at Imperial College, Open University, University of Sussex and University of Groningen are contributing to the data analysis of AKARI’s all-sky survey, and contributed to the science of some of these first results.
Dr. Stephen Serjeant (Senior Lecturer in Astrophysics at the Open University) said, “In the deep cosmological survey, AKARI sees the signature of organic molecules in distant redshifted galaxies. These galaxies are in their birth-throes, and this exceptionally sensitive survey with AKARI’s superb wide-field camera tells us great deal about the star formation during the birth of galaxies like our own, and their subsequent evolution. AKARI has also shown very clearly how one star can trigger then next generation of new stars in our own Galaxy. Having spent so many years working on this mission, I’m absolutely thrilled to see the first science from AKARI.”
Peter Barthel (professor of astronomy at Groningen University, The Netherlands) said, "AKARI will for the first time permit assessment of the far-infrared energy output of many classes of active galaxies, quasars and starburst galaxies. These very energetic objects were much more numerous in the early - that is distant - universe, and so far our knowledge of these objects was rather limited. AKARI will hence increase our understanding of the early phases of the Universe, in which the galaxies such our own Milky Way were being formed and shaped."New results are being presented at the conference, with five highlights showing:
- The first ever infra-red observations of a supernova remnant in our galactic neighbour, the Small Magellanic Cloud, giving a detailed study of how material ejected in supernova events interacts with the surrounding interstellar medium and supplies it with heavy elements formed in star cores.
- First ever observations of red-giant stars being in the earlier evolutionary stage losing large amounts of matter into the interstellar medium. This mechanism had been theoretically predicted as the means by which stars that are too small to undergo supernova (such as our Sun) end their lives. Previous observations had only ever seen this process in red-giants in their last stage, AKARI has observed in it younger stars and seen evidence that this is a sporadic process that stars go through once they enter the red giant phase.
- Processes at the heart of an active galactic nucleus. These are compact areas in the centre of galaxies that radiate very brightly. They are thought to contain massive black holes which drive these processes. AKARI has looked inside the heart of one such galaxy, hidden to other telescopes by a thick interstellar medium, and seen the signature of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of the central black hole.
- AKARI made a deep cosmological survey, sensitive to the characteristic emission from organic material in the interstellar medium of distant star-forming galaxies. Previous surveys showed that the Universe underwent a period of intense star formation 6 billion years ago (when our own Sun formed). AKARI’s survey is ten times bigger than these previous surveys, and finds evidence that this busy spell started even earlier than that.
Professor Keith Mason, CEO of PPARC which funds UK involvement with AKARI, said “AKARI is a prime example of British scientists collaborating with international partners in cutting-edge research. This Japanese-led mission is peering through the cosmic dust of the Universe in unprecedented detail to reveal just how stars are born and die.”
Dr. David Clements (postdoctoral research fellow at Imperial College London) said, “AKARI is once again demonstrating the real power of infrared astronomy, with scientific impact at all stages of stellar evolution, in the early life of galaxies, and at the cores of the most energetic objects in the universe. From black holes to young stars infrared astronomy is the key, and AKARI is doing a great job at unlocking these secrets.
Professor Glenn White (The Open University and the CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) said: "Observations of the IRC4954/4955 region spectacularly show how one generation of young stars can spawn the next. The bright nebulosity lies at the edge of a cavity, which is blown out by the radiation and winds of the first generation of young stars. This sweeping up process drives shock waves into the surrounding gas, forcing it to collapse under its own gravity, forming the next generation of young stars. Observations of the large scale processes involved in star formation are only now becoming available to observations such as those of the AKARI satellite, because of the exceptional stability and wide area coverage at infrared wavelengths. One of the main objectives in the coming months will be to use the all-sky survey to build a galaxy wide perspective on the processes important to star formation using similar data"
Dr. Chris Pearson (European Space Agency Support Astronomer to the AKARI mission, ISAS, Japan) said, "Almost one year since it opened its eye on the infrared Universe, we are now enjoying the fruits of AKARI’s observations. These images in particular demonstrate the unique multi wavelength coverage of AKARI that enables us to dig deeper into the details hidden within our images of the Universe."
Dr. Seb Oliver (Acting Director of the Astronomy Centre at University of Sussex) says. "These new results from the latest infrared mission underline the importance of infrared telescopes in astronomy. For every photon [particle of light] detected by an ordinary optical telescope on Earth another was absorbed by dust and produced infrared photons. A full understanding of quasars and star-formation will only be possible when we understand what happened to all these photons"
Significantly more productivity in USP lasers
06.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik ILT
Shape matters when light meets atom
05.12.2016 | Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
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