Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Through Saturn’s atmosphere

06.10.2006
Saturn is famous for its rings. Nevertheless, it does have other, characteristic if not unique, features – its atmosphere, for example.

The prime aim of the Planetary Science Group at the University of the Basque Country (EHU-UPV) is, in fact, to study the atmospheres of the planets: their cloud formations and fogs, how these are distributed vertically in the atmosphere, their movement and their meteorology in general.

To study Saturn’s atmosphere, images from the Hubble space telescope were used. There were numerous photographs – more than 200 were taken over the ten-year period from 1994 to 2004. These are pictures that enabled us to find out what the planet is like and what it looks like, observed in different wavelengths. This is the observational part of the study.

But, a numerical simulation can also be undertaken. This is based on the use of numerical codes, which reproduce the manner in which photons enter the atmosphere, and how they are emitted in different directions until some of them are absorbed and others emitted once again into space, i.e. reflected by the atmosphere.

These numerical codes have been developed over the past few years by a team from the EHU-UPV who, on analysing this light reflected by the atmosphere, were able to infer what particles are behind this reflection, i.e. by observing the reflected light, they could determine the number of cloud layers, their depth, the optical properties thereof, and so on. In this way, Saturn’s clouds and their evolution were studied over ten years, a relatively long time for a study of this nature.

Wind variation

Once the structural characteristics of the atmosphere were determined, other members of the team were able to evaluate the altitude at which these winds were located on the giant planet. This is of great importance in understanding the meteorology of the planet, given that it provides a three-dimensional image of its atmosphere.

In 2003, the Planetary Science Group, with images from the Hubble space telescope, observed an intense variation of the winds in Saturn’s atmosphere at its equator - in comparison to the previous measurements by the Voyager space probe. This was something that nobody really expected.

The winds at the equator of Saturn, measured by the Voyager space probe at the beginning of the 80s, blew with an enormous force - about 1700 km/h. Nevertheless, in 2003, a drop of 40% in this value was observed, as if a brake had been applied to the winds. Subsequently, when the Cassini probe arrived in 2004, it was observed that, at certain wavelengths, there were slower winds and, at others, more rapid winds. Thus, the hypothesis was put forward that the winds slackened according to altitude – the winds blowing at higher altitudes were less intense than those at lower altitudes. This, in principle, would have been expected, given that atmospheric winds generally vary with height. The EHU-UPV team quantified this hypothesis in such a way as to make it a valid one, based on measurements of the variation of the wind as a function of altitude.

Nevertheless, compared with the winds measured in the Voyager period, it was shown, effectively, that there had been an important variation. The fact is that, in 1990, there was an enormous storm at the equator of Saturn. On Saturn there is a phenomenon that repeats itself every 30 years approximately – a huge storm that disturbs an enormous region of the planet, a storm several times bigger than our own planet. The Planetary Science Group at EHU-UPV are currently trying, amongst other endeavours, to analyse how this type of phenomena might affect an atmosphere like that on planet Saturn.

Irati Kortabitarte | alfa
Further information:
http://www.elhuyar.com
http://www.basqueresearch.com/berria_irakurri.asp?Gelaxka=1_1&hizk=I&Berri_Kod=1047

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht First direct observation and measurement of ultra-fast moving vortices in superconductors
20.07.2017 | The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

nachricht Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information
19.07.2017 | Universität Basel

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

Leipzig HTP-Forum discusses "hydrothermal processes" as a key technology for a biobased economy

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers create new technique for manipulating polarization of terahertz radiation

20.07.2017 | Information Technology

High-tech sensing illuminates concrete stress testing

20.07.2017 | Materials Sciences

First direct observation and measurement of ultra-fast moving vortices in superconductors

20.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>