Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Through Saturn’s atmosphere

06.10.2006
Saturn is famous for its rings. Nevertheless, it does have other, characteristic if not unique, features – its atmosphere, for example.

The prime aim of the Planetary Science Group at the University of the Basque Country (EHU-UPV) is, in fact, to study the atmospheres of the planets: their cloud formations and fogs, how these are distributed vertically in the atmosphere, their movement and their meteorology in general.

To study Saturn’s atmosphere, images from the Hubble space telescope were used. There were numerous photographs – more than 200 were taken over the ten-year period from 1994 to 2004. These are pictures that enabled us to find out what the planet is like and what it looks like, observed in different wavelengths. This is the observational part of the study.

But, a numerical simulation can also be undertaken. This is based on the use of numerical codes, which reproduce the manner in which photons enter the atmosphere, and how they are emitted in different directions until some of them are absorbed and others emitted once again into space, i.e. reflected by the atmosphere.

These numerical codes have been developed over the past few years by a team from the EHU-UPV who, on analysing this light reflected by the atmosphere, were able to infer what particles are behind this reflection, i.e. by observing the reflected light, they could determine the number of cloud layers, their depth, the optical properties thereof, and so on. In this way, Saturn’s clouds and their evolution were studied over ten years, a relatively long time for a study of this nature.

Wind variation

Once the structural characteristics of the atmosphere were determined, other members of the team were able to evaluate the altitude at which these winds were located on the giant planet. This is of great importance in understanding the meteorology of the planet, given that it provides a three-dimensional image of its atmosphere.

In 2003, the Planetary Science Group, with images from the Hubble space telescope, observed an intense variation of the winds in Saturn’s atmosphere at its equator - in comparison to the previous measurements by the Voyager space probe. This was something that nobody really expected.

The winds at the equator of Saturn, measured by the Voyager space probe at the beginning of the 80s, blew with an enormous force - about 1700 km/h. Nevertheless, in 2003, a drop of 40% in this value was observed, as if a brake had been applied to the winds. Subsequently, when the Cassini probe arrived in 2004, it was observed that, at certain wavelengths, there were slower winds and, at others, more rapid winds. Thus, the hypothesis was put forward that the winds slackened according to altitude – the winds blowing at higher altitudes were less intense than those at lower altitudes. This, in principle, would have been expected, given that atmospheric winds generally vary with height. The EHU-UPV team quantified this hypothesis in such a way as to make it a valid one, based on measurements of the variation of the wind as a function of altitude.

Nevertheless, compared with the winds measured in the Voyager period, it was shown, effectively, that there had been an important variation. The fact is that, in 1990, there was an enormous storm at the equator of Saturn. On Saturn there is a phenomenon that repeats itself every 30 years approximately – a huge storm that disturbs an enormous region of the planet, a storm several times bigger than our own planet. The Planetary Science Group at EHU-UPV are currently trying, amongst other endeavours, to analyse how this type of phenomena might affect an atmosphere like that on planet Saturn.

Irati Kortabitarte | alfa
Further information:
http://www.elhuyar.com
http://www.basqueresearch.com/berria_irakurri.asp?Gelaxka=1_1&hizk=I&Berri_Kod=1047

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Taking a spin on plasma space tornadoes with NASA observations
20.11.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth
17.11.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Antarctic landscape insights keep ice loss forecasts on the radar

20.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

Filling the gap: High-latitude volcanic eruptions also have global impact

20.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

Water world

20.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>