Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Spitzer Telescope reveals jets of matter around dead star

28.06.2006
A team of scientists, including researchers in the University of Southampton’s School of Physics and Astronomy, have shown that black holes are not the only known objects in the universe to produce infrared light from beams of particles being shot into space at nearly the speed of light.

Previously, these steady ‘relativistic jets’ were only seen from black holes which form part of a black hole X-ray binary, a system containing a black hole orbited by a normal star which is so close that the black hole's gravity can peel off the outer part of the normal star and suck in its gas through an accretion disk or disk of matter.


A computer-generated visualisation of a black hole or neutron star X-ray binary system. Image produced using a visualisation tool provided by Rob Hynes of the Louisiana State University, USA.

Using the extremely sensitive infrared Spitzer Space Telescope recently launched by NASA, the team discovered one of these steady jets of matter coming from a neutron star (a super-dense type of dead star) in an X-ray binary system. For many years scientists have debated whether there was something unique to black holes that fuelled relativistic jets. It is now clear that the jets must be fuelled by something that both black holes and neutron stars share.

Neutron stars form in the death knells of massive stars, when the pressure at the centre of the star is so large that the electrons and protons of normal matter combine to form a star made almost entirely of neutrons. Not quite dense enough to be black holes, they have masses slightly larger than the Sun's, but diameters about the size of a city, making them as dense as the nuclei of atoms.

Dr Thomas Maccarone, of the University of Southampton, explains: ‘Jets of matter shot off by black holes are usually observed with a radio telescope which enables astronomers to isolate the jet from everything else in the system. However, observing a neutron star’s jets with a radio telescope would take many hours because the jets are very faint. The Spitzer Space Telescope sees light which is redder than the reddest colours visible by the human eye and also redder than the light given off by normal stars.’

Using the Spitzer Telescope, the researchers were therefore able to detect the faint jet of a particular neutron star, 4U 0614+091, in minutes even though it is located about 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Orion. This signal would have taken almost a day to detect on the most powerful radio telescopes on Earth. The Spitzer Telescope also helped the team infer details about the jet’s geometry. The team’s data indicates that the presence of an accretion disk and an intense gravitational field may be all that is needed to create and fuel a jet of matter.

Dr Maccarone continues: ‘For the past 25 years, astronomers have debated the importance of a black hole in jet production. By comparing the behaviour of the relativistic jets seen from neutron star X-ray binaries and from black hole X-ray binaries, astronomers have hoped to compare neutron stars and black holes directly and possibly to see whether these jets are extracting the black holes' rotational energy. This discovery blazes the trail for future studies which should help reveal the nature of relativistic jets.’

Sarah Watts | alfa
Further information:
http://www.soton.ac.uk

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Climate cycles may explain how running water carved Mars' surface features
02.12.2016 | Penn State

nachricht What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?
02.12.2016 | University of Toronto

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>