Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

When gold becomes a catalyst

23.06.2006
Gold has always been perceived as a precious material: you win a gold medal when you prove to be the best in a competition; you only get a Gold credit card when you are a preferential customer, and the jewelry made of this material is amongst the most valuable. However, gold has also unexpected properties: It can act as a catalyst and transform carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) when it comes in the form of tiny pieces, called nano-particles. Gold suddenly enhances desired chemical reactions as a catalyst for example in the removal of odours and toxins or to clean automotive exhaust gases. Researchers from Switzerland, UK, the USA and the ESRF (Grenoble) have monitored the catalytic process and proposed an explanation for the high catalytic activity of gold. They publish today their results in the journal Angewandte Chemie online.

The team used nano-particles of gold instead of bulk gold. The catalyst structure looks as if someone had pulverized a piece of gold and spread the tiny nano-sized pieces over an aluminum oxide support. The properties of the nano-particles are very different from those of bulk gold. Only when the gold atoms are confined to the size of just a few millionth of a millimetre they start showing the desired catalytic behaviour.


Mechanism for the catalytic reaction 2CO + O2 -> 2CO2

Scientists already knew that gold nano-particles react with this kind of setup and catalyses CO with oxygen (O2) into CO2. What they did not know was how the oxygen is activated on the catalyst. In order to find that out, they set up a cell where they could carry out the reaction, and in situ perform an X-ray experiment with the ESRF beam.

The researchers first applied a flow of oxygen over the gold nano-particles and observed how the oxygen becomes chemically active when bound on the gold nano-particles using high-energy resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy. While constantly monitoring the samples, they switched to a flow of toxic carbon monoxide and found that the oxygen bound to the gold reacted with the carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide. Without the gold nano-particles, this reaction does not take place. “We knew beforehand that the small gold particles were active, but not how they did the reaction. The nice thing is that we have been able to observe, for the first time, the steps and path of the reaction. The results followed almost perfectly our original hypotheses. Isn’t it beautiful that the most inert bulk metal is so reactive when finely dispersed?” comments Jeroen A. van Bokhoven, the corresponding author of the paper.

The possible applications of this research could involve pollution control such as air cleaning, or purification of hydrogen streams used for fuel cells. “Regarding the technique we used, the exceptionally high structural detail that can be obtained with it could be used to study other catalytic systems, with the aim of making them more stable and perform better”, says van Bokhoven.

One of the great advantages of this experiment is the nature of catalysis. The fact that once the material has reacted, it goes back to its initial state, has made the experiments easier. Nevertheless, in technological terms, it has been very demanding: “We combined the unique properties of our beamline with an interesting and strongly debated question in catalysis. Some extra time was needed to adapt the beamline, to the special requirements of this experiment,” explains Pieter Glatzel, scientist in charge of ID26 beamline, where the experiments were carried out. At the end, it only took the team a bit over half a year to prepare and carry out the experiments and publish the paper. “This is a very nice recognition of our work,” says Glatzel.

The article appears in this week’s international edition of Angewandte Chemie with a very high impact among the chemistry audience. In addition to this, the paper has been attributed the status of Very Important Paper, which is given to only 5% of all the publications in this journal.

Montserrat Capellas | alfa
Further information:
http://www.esrf.fr

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions
27.04.2017 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

nachricht SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history
26.04.2017 | Southwest Research Institute

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Bare bones: Making bones transparent

27.04.2017 | Life Sciences

Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions

27.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

From volcano's slope, NASA instrument looks sky high and to the future

27.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>