Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Titan’s turbulence surprises scientists

01.12.2005


Strong turbulence in the upper atmosphere, a second ionospheric layer and possible lightning were among the surprises found by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) during the descent to Titan’s surface.



HASI provided measurements from an altitude of 1400 km down to the surface of the physical characteristics of the atmosphere and surface, such as temperature and density profiles, electrical conductivity, and surface structure. The Huygens SSP made measurements just above and on the surface of Titan.

High-altitude atmospheric structure had been inferred from earlier solar occultation measurements by Voyager, but the middle atmosphere (200–600 km) was not well determined, although telescopic observations indicated a complex vertical structure.


Very little was known about the surface of Titan because it is hidden by a thick ’haze’ - initial speculation was that the surface was covered by a deep hydrocarbon ocean, but infrared and radar measurements showed definite albedo contrasts —possibly consistent with lakes, but not with a global ocean.

Earlier observations showed that the surface pressure on Titan was comparable to that on Earth, and that methane formed a plausible counterpart to terrestrial water for cloud and rain formation. There was also speculation on the possibility of lightning occurring in Titan’s atmosphere that could affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere.

HASI found that in the upper part of the atmosphere, the temperature and density were both higher than expected. The temperature structure shows strong wave-like variations of 10-20 K about a mean of about 170 K. This, together with other evidence, indicates that Titan’s atmosphere has many different layers.

Models of Titan’s ionosphere predicted that galactic cosmic rays would produce an ionospheric layer with a maximum concentration of electrons between 70 and 90 km altitude. HASI also surprised the Huygens team by finding a second lower ionospheric layer, between 140 km and 40 km, with electrical conductivity peaking near 60 km.

HASI may also have seen the signature of lightning. Several electrical field impulse events were observed during the descent, caused by possible lightning activity in the spherical waveguide formed by the surface of Titan and the inner boundary of its ionosphere.

The vertical resolution of the temperature measurement was sufficient to resolve the structure of the planetary boundary layer. This boundary layer had a thickness of about 300 m at the place and time of landing. The surface temperature was accurately measured at 93.65±0.25 K and the pressure 1467±1 hPa (very close to measurements made earlier by Voyager, about 95K and 1400 hPa).

Franco Bonacina | alfa
Further information:
http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Results_from_Mars_Express_and_Huygens/SEMLKRULWFE_0.html

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms
17.02.2017 | Universität Konstanz

nachricht New functional principle to generate the „third harmonic“
16.02.2017 | Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biocompatible 3-D tracking system has potential to improve robot-assisted surgery

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Real-time MRI analysis powered by supercomputers

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections

17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>