Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Massive Old Star Reveals Secrets On Deathbed

26.01.2004


Like a doctor trying to understand an elderly patient’s sudden demise, astronomers have obtained the most detailed observations ever of an old but otherwise normal massive star just before and after its life ended in a spectacular supernova explosion.



Imaged by the Gemini Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) less than a year prior to the gigantic explosion, the star is located in the nearby galaxy M-74 in the constellation of Pisces. These observations allowed a team of European astronomers led by Dr. Stephen Smartt of the University of Cambridge, England to verify theoretical models showing how a star like this can meet such a violent fate.

The results were published in the January 23, 2004 issue of the journal Science. This work provides the first confirmation of the long-held theory that some of the most massive (yet normal) old stars in the Universe end their lives in violent supernova explosions.


"It might be argued that a certain amount of luck or serendipity was involved in this finding," said Dr. Smartt. "However, we’ve been searching for this sort of normal progenitor star on its deathbed for some time. I like to think that finding the superb Gemini and HST data for this star is a vindication of our prediction that one day we had to find one of these stars in the immense data archives that now exist."

During the last few years, Smartt’s research team has been using the most powerful telescopes, both in space and on the ground, to image hundreds of galaxies in the hope that one of the millions of stars in these galaxies will some day explode as a supernova. In this case, the renowned Australian amateur supernova hunter, Reverend Robert Evans, made the initial discovery of the explosion (identified as SN203gd) while scanning galaxies with a 12-inch (31cm) backyard telescope from his home in New South Wales, Australia in June, 2003.

Following Evans’ discovery, Dr. Smartt’s team quickly followed up with detailed observations using the Hubble Space Telescope. These observations verified the exact position of the original or "progenitor" star. Using this positional data, Smartt and his team dug through data archives and discovered that observations by the Gemini Observatory and HST contained the combination of data necessary to reveal the nature of the progenitor.
The Gemini data was obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii in 2001. These data were also used to produce a stunning high-resolution image of the galaxy that clearly shows the red progenitor star.

Armed with the earlier Gemini and HST observations Smartt’s team was able to demonstrate that the progenitor star was what astronomers classify as a normal red supergiant. Prior to exploding, this star appeared to have a mass about 10 times greater, and a diameter about 500 times greater than that of our Sun. If our sun were the size of the progenitor it would engulf the entire inner solar system out to about the planet Mars.

Red supergiant stars are quite common in the universe and an excellent example can be easily spotted during January from almost anywhere on the Earth by looking at Betelgeuse, the bright red shoulder star in the constellation of Orion. Like SN2003gd, it is believed that Betelgeuse could meet the same explosive fate at any time from next week to thousands of years from now.

After SN2003gd exploded, the team observed its gradually fading light for several months using the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes on La Palma. These observations demonstrated that this was a normal type II supernova, which means that the ejected material from the explosion is rich in hydrogen. Computer models developed by astronomers have long predicted that red supergiants with extended, thick atmospheres of hydrogen would produce these type II supernovae but until now have not had the observational evidence to back up their theories. However, the fantastic resolution and depth of the Gemini and Hubble images allowed the Smartt team to estimate the temperature, luminosity, radius and mass of this progenitor star and reveal that it was a normal large, old star. "The bottom-line is that these observations provide a strong confirmation that the theories for both stellar evolution and the origins of these cosmic explosions are correct," said co-author Seppo Mattila of Stockholm Observatory.

This is only the third time astronomers have actually seen the progenitor of a confirmed supernova explosion. The others were peculiar type II supernovae: SN 1987A, which had a blue supergiant progenitor, and SN 1993J, which emerged from a massive interacting binary star system.

Dr. Smartt concludes, "Supernova explosions produce and distribute the chemical elements that make up everything in the visible Universe - especially life. It is critical that we know what type of stars produce these building blocks if we are to understand our origins."

Archived Gemini and HST data was critical to the success of this project. "This discovery is a perfect example of archival data’s immense value to new scientific projects," said Dr. Colin Aspin who is the Gemini Scientist responsible for the development of the Gemini Science Archive (GSA). He continued, "this discovery demonstrates the spectacular results that can be realized by using archival data and stresses the importance of developing the GSA for future generations of astronomers."

Gill Ormrod | PPARC
Further information:
http://www.pparc.ac.uk/Nw/supernova.asp

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Tracing aromatic molecules in the early universe
23.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside

nachricht New study maps space dust in 3-D
23.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

When Air is in Short Supply - Shedding light on plant stress reactions when oxygen runs short

23.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Researchers use light to remotely control curvature of plastics

23.03.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Sea ice extent sinks to record lows at both poles

23.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>