Dry valleys, channels, and networks of gullies scar the arid Martian landscape. Along with other evidence, these physical vestiges of conditions on ancient Mars suggest a planet once saturated with liquid water. Where is this water now? Scientists have posited that a portion of it evaporated into the atmosphere, but that the rest lies beneath the surface. Findings announced today offer the strongest support yet to that hypothesis: according to new data, large deposits of water ice may in fact exist under just tens of centimeters of soil on the Red Planet.
Researchers used a gamma-ray spectrometer on board the Mars Odyssey spacecraft to map the emissions of gamma rays and neutrons from the Martian surface. Interactions between elements and cosmic rays, which constantly bombard all planets, produce these gamma rays and neutrons. Specifically, when a cosmic ray strikes an element, neutrons are released. These neutrons may either escape the planet’s surface or excite the nuclei of surrounding elements, which respond by emitting gamma rays. Each element emits a unique combination of gamma rays and neutrons, and thus has a distinctive fingerprint. In three papers released yesterday by the journal Science, investigators reported having found evidence for a high concentration of the element hydrogen, an indicator of water. The results suggest that an immense quantity of water exists within the nooks and crannies of a rocky, porous layer of soil some 30 to 60 centimeters beneath Mars’s surface. Stretching from the edges of the polar ice caps to the middle latitudes, the thickness of the ice layer is difficult to determine--it may be anywhere from a few hundred centimeters to a kilometer deep.
If confirmed, the locations of such water ice deposits could determine future landing sites for rovers, locations of sample returns, and perhaps even placements of human settlements. "We have suspected for some time that Mars once had large amounts of water near the surface. The big questions we are trying to answer are, ’where did all that water go?’ and ’what are the implications for life?’" remarks Jim Garvin, Mars Program Scientist at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C. "Measuring and mapping the icy soils in the polar regions of Mars as the Odyssey team has done is an important piece of this puzzle, but we need to continue searching, perhaps much deeper underground, for what happened to the rest of the water we think Mars once had."
Rachael Moeller | Scientific American
Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials
21.09.2016 | Universität Basel
Magnetic polaron imaged for the first time
19.09.2016 | Aalto University
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.
In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...
Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.
K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...
23.09.2016 | Event News
20.09.2016 | Event News
16.09.2016 | Event News
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences
23.09.2016 | Health and Medicine
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences