In a simple set-up, the scientists used the translation of position information of fluorescent markers into color information. Overcoming the need for scanning the depth of a sample, they were able to generate the precise 3D information at the same speed as it would take to acquire a 2D image. The general principle of this innovative approach can be used for broader applications and is published online in the PNAS Early Edition this week.
Visualization of Paxillin-fluctuations at the adhesion site of a murine melanoma cell, using the new technique. IMP
Illustration of Paxillin-distribution in a murine melanoma cell using the new technique. Red represents closest and blue furthest distances. IMP
For many disciplines in the natural sciences it is desirable to get highly enlarged, precise pictures of specimens such as cells. Depending on the purpose of an experiment and the preparation of the sample, different microscopy-techniques are used to analyze small structures or objects. However, a drawback of most current approaches is the need to scan the depth of a sample in order to get a 3D picture. Especially for optically sensitive or highly dynamic (fast moving) samples this often represents a serious problem. Katrin Heinze and Kareem Elsayad, lead authors of the PNAS publication, managed to circumvent this difficulty during their work at the IMP.
Precise images of sensitive and dynamic samples
Elsayad, who was part of a research team led by Katrin Heinze at the IMP, used fluorescence microscopy for his experimental set-up. The principle of fluorescence microscopy – now a common tool in biomedical research labs – is as follows: Fluorescent dyes, so-called fluorophores, are turned on by light of a certain wavelength and, as a consequence, “spontaneously” emit light of a different wavelength. Elsayad designed a thin biocompatible nanostructure consisting of a quartz microscope slide with a thin silver film and a dielectric layer. The IMP-scientist then labeled the sample – fixed or live cells – with a fluorescent dye and placed it above the coated slide.
Elsayad explains in simple terms how the biological imaging then took place: “The measured emission spectrum of a fluorescent dye above this substrate depends on its distance from the substrate. In other words, the position information of a collection of fluorophores is translated into color information, and this is what we were measuring in the end”. With this elaborate method, only one measurement is needed to determine the fluorophore distribution above the substrate, with a resolution – in the direction away from the substrate – down to 10 nanometers (1/100.000th of a millimeter). “I believe that the beauty of our method is its simplicity. No elaborate set-up or machines are required to achieve this high resolution. Once the sample is placed on the substrate, which can be mass produced, a confocal microscope with spectral detection is all that is needed”, Heinze points out.
Simple method, big potential
The novel technique was already successfully tested by Elsayad and Heinze. Together with collaborators at the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology (IMBA) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, they used it to study paxillin, a protein important for cell adhesion, in living cells. The scientists also visualized the 3D dynamics of filopodia, small cell protrusions made of bundled actin-filaments that move very quickly and have a high turnover-rate during cell migration.
Originally developed for a single fluorescent marker, the new method can be adapted for others as well.“There are numerous possibilities for further development and additional applications of the technique”, Elsayad points out. “From optical readout on chips to make faster computers, to more efficient DNA sequencing methods.” The novel technique patented by the IMP has already attracted a lot of interest from several big optical companies.Original publication
Dr. Heidemarie Hurtl | idw
Move over, lasers: Scientists can now create holograms from neutrons, too
21.10.2016 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Finding the lightest superdeformed triaxial atomic nucleus
20.10.2016 | The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences