Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Intense heat killed the Universe's would-be galaxies

02.07.2009
Our Milky Way galaxy only survived because it was already immersed in a large clump of dark matter which trapped gases inside it, scientists led by Durham University's Institute for Computational Cosmology (ICC) found.

The research, to be presented at an international conference today (Wednesday, July 1), also forms a core part of a new ICC movie charting the evolution of the Milky Way to be shown at the Royal Society.

The researchers said that the early Milky Way, which had begun forming stars, held on to the raw gaseous material from which further stars would be made. This material would otherwise have been evaporated by the high temperatures generated by the "ignition" of the Universe about half-a-billion years after the Big Bang.

Tiny galaxies, inside small clumps of dark matter, were blasted away by the heat which reached approximate temperatures of between 20,000 and 100,000 degrees centigrade, the scientists, including experts at Japan's University of Tsukuba, said.

Dark matter is thought to make up 85 per cent of the Universe's mass and is believed to be one of the building blocks of galaxy formation.

Using computer simulations carried out by the international Virgo Consortium (which is led by Durham) the scientists examined why galaxies like the Milky Way have so few companion galaxies or satellites.

Astronomers have found a few dozen small satellites around the Milky Way, but the simulations revealed that hundreds of thousands of small clumps of dark matter should be orbiting our galaxy.

The scientists said the heat from the early stars and black holes rendered this dark matter barren and unable to support the development of satellite star systems.

The findings will be presented to The Unity of the Universe conference to be held at the Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, at the University of Portsmouth on Wednesday, July 1. The work has been funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science.

The simulations also form part of a new ICC movie – called Our Cosmic Origins – which combines ground-breaking simulations with observations of galaxies to track the evolution of the Milky Way over the 13-billion-year history of the Universe.

The movie is part of the ICC's exhibit at The Royal Society's annual Summer Science Exhibition which runs until this Saturday (July 4).

Joint lead investigator Professor Carlos Frenk, Director of the Institute for Computational Cosmology, at Durham University, said: "The validity of the standard model of our Universe hinges on finding a satisfactory explanation for why galaxies like the Milky Way have so few companions.

"The simulations show that hundreds of thousands of small dark matter clumps should be orbiting the Milky Way, but they didn't form galaxies.

"We can demonstrate that it was almost impossible for these potential galaxies to survive the extreme heat generated by the first stars and black holes.

"The heat evaporated gas from the small dark matter clumps, rendering them barren. Only a few dozen front-runners which had a head start on making stars before the Universe ignited managed to survive."

By providing a natural explanation for the origin of galaxies, the simulations support the view that cold dark matter is the best candidate for the mysterious material believed to make up the majority of our Universe, the scientists added.

It is now up to experimental physicists to either find this dark matter directly or to make it in a particle accelerator such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

Professor Frenk, added: "Identifying the dark matter is not only one of the most pressing problems in science today, but also the key to understanding the formation of galaxies."

Joint lead investigator Dr Takashi Okamoto from the University of Tsukuba said: "These are still early days in trying to make realistic galaxies in a computer, but our results are very encouraging."

Leighton Kitson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.durham.ac.uk

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods
19.10.2017 | California Institute of Technology

nachricht NASA team finds noxious ice cloud on saturn's moon titan
19.10.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrode materials from the microwave oven

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

New material for digital memories of the future

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods

19.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>