Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Atomic physics study sets new limits on hypothetical new particles

04.05.2009
University of Nevada, Reno team findings to be published in Physical Review Letters article

In a forthcoming Physical Review Letters article, a group of physicists at the University of Nevada, Reno are reporting a refined analysis of experiments on violation of mirror symmetry in atoms that sets new constraints on a hypothesized particle, the extra Z-boson.

Andrei Derevianko, an associate professor in the College of Science's Department of Physics, who has conducted groundbreaking research to improve the time-telling capabilities of the world's most accurate atomic clocks, is one of the principals behind what is believed to be the most accurate to-date low-energy determination of the strength of the electroweak coupling between atomic electrons and quarks of the nucleus.

"It is remarkable that the low-cost atomic precision experiments and theory are capable of constraining new physics at the level competitive to colliders," Derevianko said. He has been able to define new limits without needing something like a $6 billion Large Hadron Collider, an enormous particle accelerator in Europe that is not yet fully operational.

"This is like David and Goliath, we are just a small group of people able to better interpret the data on violation of mirror symmetry in atoms. Our work indicates less of a possibility for extra Z-bosons, potential carriers of the fifth force of nature...it is possible the LHC will be able either to move the mass limit higher or discover these particles," he said.

Derevianko and his colleagues have determined the coupling strength by combining previous measurements made by Dr. Carl Wieman, a Nobel laureate in physics, with high-precision calculations in a cesium atom.

The original work by Wieman on violation of mirror symmetry in atoms used a table-top apparatus at the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colo. The Boulder team monitored a "twinge" of weak force in atoms, which are otherwise governed by the electromagnetic force. The Standard Model of elementary particles, developed in the early 1970s, holds that heavy particles, called Z-bosons, carry this weak force. In contrast to the electromagnetic force, the weak force violates mirror symmetry: an atom and its mirror image behave differently. This is known to physicists as "parity violation."

The Boulder group's experiment opened the door to new inquiry, according to Derevianko. "It pointed out a discrepancy, and hinted at a possibility for new physics, in particular, extra Z-bosons," he said.

Interpretation of the Boulder experiment requires theoretical input. The analysis requires detailed understanding of the correlated motion of 55 electrons of cesium atom. This is not an easy task as the number of memory units required for storing full quantum-mechanical wavefunctions exceeds the estimated number of atoms in the Universe. Special computational tools and approximations were developed. Compared to previous analyses, reaching the next level of accuracy required a factor of 1,000 increase in computational complexity.

The paper represents a dramatic improvement as researchers have struggled to develop a more precise test of the Standard Model. Derevianko's group, which included Dr. S. Porsev and a number of students, has worked on the analysis of the Boulder experiment for the past eight years.

"Finally, the computer technology caught up with the number-crunching demands of the problem and we were able to attack the problem," says Derevianko. "I have greatly benefited from collaborations in this complex problem. A fellow co-author, Kyle Beloy, for example, has recently been recognized as an Outstanding Graduate Researcher by the University."

In contrast to previous, less accurate interpretations of the Boulder experiment, Derevianko's group has found a perfect agreement with the prediction of the Standard Model. This agreement holds important implications for particle physics.

"Atomic parity violation places powerful constraints on new physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles," Derevianko said. "With this new-found precision, we are doing a better job of 'listening' to the atoms."

By refining and improving the computations, Derevianko said there is potential for a better understanding of hypothetical particles (extra Z-bosons) which could be carriers of a so-far elusive fifth force of nature. For years, physics researchers have grappled with experiments to prove or disprove the possibility of a fifth force of Nature.

There are four known fundamental forces of Nature. In addition to gravity, electromagnetism creates light, radio waves and other forms of radiation. Two other forces operate only on an atomic level: These are the strong force, which binds particles in the nucleus, and the weak force, which reveals itself when atoms break down in radioactive decay, or as in the Boulder experiment, through the parity violation.

The possibility of a fifth force could dispute the long-held belief that the force of gravity is the same for all substances.

"New physics beyond the Standard Model is the next frontier," Derevianko said, "and it's the theoretical motivation for much of this research."

To read Derevianko's paper co-authored with S. Porsev and K. Beloy, go to: http://arxiv.org/abs/0902.0335

Below is a summary of Derevianko's paper, which is entitled, "Precision determination of electroweak coupling from atomic parity violation and implications for particle physics":

Atomic parity violation places powerful constraints on new physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles. The measurements are interpreted in terms of the nuclear weak charge, quantifying the strength of the electroweak coupling between atomic electrons and quarks of the nucleus. We report the most accurate to-date determination of this coupling strength by combining previous measurements by the Boulder group with our high-precision calculations in cesium atom. Our result is in a perfect agreement with the prediction of the Standard Model.

In combination with the results of high-energy collider experiments, our work confirms the predicted energy dependence (or ``running'') of the electroweak interaction over an energy range spanning four orders of magnitude (from ~10 MeV to ~100 GeV) and places new limits on the masses of extra Z bosons (Z'). Our raised bound on the Z' masses carves out a lower-energy part of the discovery reach of the Large Hadron Collider. At the same time, a major goal of the LHC is to find evidence for supersymmetry (SUSY), one of the basic, yet experimentally unproven, concepts of particle physics. Our result is consistent with the R-parity conserving SUSY with relatively light (sub-TeV) superpartners. This raises additional hopes of discovering SUSY at the LHC.

Mike Wolterbeek | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.unr.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht One-way roads for spin currents
23.05.2018 | Singapore University of Technology and Design

nachricht Tunable diamond string may hold key to quantum memory
23.05.2018 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Research reveals how order first appears in liquid crystals

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

Space-like gravity weakens biochemical signals in muscle formation

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

NIST puts the optical microscope under the microscope to achieve atomic accuracy

23.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>