Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New application of physics tools used in biology

10.02.2014
A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory physicist and his colleagues have found a new application for the tools and mathematics typically used in physics to help solve problems in biology.

Specifically, the team used statistical mechanics and mathematical modeling to shed light on something known as epigenetic memory -- how an organism can create a biological memory of some variable condition, such as quality of nutrition or temperature.


This DNA molecule is wrapped twice around a histone octamer, the major structural protein of chromosomes. New studies show they play a role in preserving biological memory when cells divide. Image courtesy of Memorial University of Newfoundland.

"The work highlights the interdisciplinary nature of modern molecular biology, in particular, how the tools and models from mathematics and physics can help clarify problems in biology," said Ken Kim, a LLNL physicist and one of the authors of a paper appearing in the Feb. 7 issue of Physical Review Letters.

Not all characteristics of living organisms can be explained by their genes alone. Epigenetic processes react with great sensitivity to genes' immediate biochemical surroundings -- and further, they pass those reactions on to the next generation.

The team's work on the dynamics of histone protein modification is central to epigenetics. Like genetic changes, epigenetic changes are preserved when a cell divides. Histone proteins were once thought to be static, structural components in chromosomes, but recent studies have shown that histones play an important dynamical role in the machinery responsible for epigenetic regulation.

When histones undergo chemical alterations (histone modification) as a result of some external stimulus, they trigger short-term biological memory of that stimulus within a cell, which can be passed down to its daughter cells. This memory also can be reversed after a few cell division cycles.

Epigenetic modifications are essential in the development and function of cells, but also play a key role in cancer, according to Jianhua Xing, a former LLNL postdoc and current professor at Virginia Tech. "For example, changes in the epigenome can lead to the activation or deactivation of signaling pathways that can lead to tumor formation," Xing added.

The molecular mechanism underlying epigenetic memory involves complex interactions between histones, DNA and enzymes, which produce modification patterns that are recognized by the cell. To gain insight into such complex systems, the team constructed a mathematical model that captures the essential features of the histone-induced epigenetic memory. The model highlights the "engineering" challenge a cell must constantly face during molecular recognition. It is analogous to restoring a picture with missing parts. The molecular properties of a species have been evolutionarily selected to allow them to "reason" what the missing parts are based on incomplete information pattern inherited from the mother cell.

The research team includes Tech graduate students Hang Zhang and Abhishek Mukhopadhyay and postdoc researcher Xiao-Jun Tian also of Virginia Tech, and Yujin Kim of Foothill High School in Pleasanton, Calif. During this research project, Xing served as a mentor to Yujin Kim.

The research is supported by National Science Foundation grants.

Anne Stark | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.llnl.gov

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Climate cycles may explain how running water carved Mars' surface features
02.12.2016 | Penn State

nachricht What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?
02.12.2016 | University of Toronto

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>