Because pneumonia disproportionately affects patients with COPD and frequently causes exacerbations, the Centers for Disease Control currently recommend that all adults with COPD receive the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23). However, the efficacy of PPSV23 is not well established in the COPD patient population.
"Reasonable effectiveness for this vaccine has been demonstrated in cohort studies in adults with lung disease," said Mark Dransfield, M.D. of the University of Alabama at Birmingham and lead author of the study. "[However,] debate remains about its immunogenicity and effectiveness in COPD."
Dr. Dransfield and colleagues sought to determine the efficacy of a newer type of vaccine, PCV7, a protein conjugate vaccine, which attaches a weak antigen (in this case, the pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen) to a stronger antigen (the diphtheria toxin) in the hope that the stronger antigen with provoke a more forceful defense from the immune system.
"Conjugated vaccines were originally intended for young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens," said Dr. Dransfield. "We wanted to see whether they could have a similar effect in the COPD patient population in whom immune responses may also be blunted."
Results of the randomized open label trial of 120 adults with moderate to severe COPD showed that, while both the PPSV23 vaccine and the PCV7 vaccine were well-tolerated, the PCV7 vaccine produced superior immune responses on several measures of immunogenicity. Among patients randomized to take the PCV7 vaccine, the fraction exhibiting a twofold increase in serotype-specific IgG antibodies was higher in five of the seven serotypes tested. Blood drawn from patients who had received the PCV7 vaccine was also more effective at killing pneumococci in six of seven serotypes tested one month after vaccination.
"We have shown that PCV7 induces a superior immune response to PPSV23 in COPD at one month post-vaccination," concluded Dr. Dransfield. "Both vaccines elicit responses comparable to those previous observed in health elderly patients." Older age and prior vaccination with PPSV23 dampened the efficacy of the PCV7 vaccine, however.
A vaccine in development that contains the capsule of 13 pneumococcal serotypes, called PCV13 (compared to PCV7 which has seven) is hoped to expand the coverage of the vaccine.
"We hope that future research will confirm the superior immunogenicity of PCV13 in COPD," he added. "We also want to determine the relative duration of the immune response following PPSV23 and conjugate vaccination and to identify the immunologic correlates of protection against both invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal disease. We believe our data provide the rationale for further study of the clinical efficacy of protein-conjugate pneumococcal vaccines in the high risk COPD population."
Keely Savoie | EurekAlert!
Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Life Sciences