This includes elbow, arm, hand and face transplantations and requires surgical skill and a multidisciplinary approach. Because in these cases transplanted tissues are always coming from a genetically non-identical donor (allograft), they generate a rejection process mediated by the recipient immune system.
Therefore, chronic immunosuppression is required to prevent rejection and graft loss, with some side effects that may limit the indication of transplantation based on logic of cost-benefit ratio. The ideal solution would be to get reliable protocols for inducing transplantation tolerance.
Very recently, funded by the Melina Nakos foundation and the First Elite program of the Walloon region, and in collaboration with Professor Frédéric Schuind from Erasme hospital, doctors Zanzhuo Li and Alain Le Moine, at the Institute for Medical Immunology – Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), developed a mouse model of composite tissue allograft including a vascularised femur.
The results of their research are published in the American Journal of Transplantation, the official journal of the American Society of Transplantation (AST).
In this model, a short course of immunosuppression at the time of transplantation allowed to make recipients robustly tolerant to the transplant. Importantly, tolerance was donor-specific, since recipients were still able to reject a third party allograft (unrelated to the donor), meaning that recipient immune system ultimately recovered responsiveness. It was shown that donor-type haematopoietic stem cells derived from the transplanted bone repopulated the recipient immune system and induced tolerance by removing anti-donor cells. This did not require recipient aggressive preconditioning which is considered as a too risky treatment to be applied in the context of composite tissue allografts. Therefore, vascularized bone transplantation containing donor-derived bone marrow cells might become a valuable tool for inducing transplantation tolerance in composite tissue allografts but also in other transplantations.
This study demonstrates the feasibility of stem cells grafts through a vascularised bone and the tolerance that it induces in the recipient of a composite tissue allograft.
In terms of clinical applications, this could be an alternative method to the intravenous injection of stem cells which does not induce a stable chimerism in the recipient unless after a heavy conditioning of the patient.
Zhanzhuo L, Benghiat FS, Kubjak C, Noval Rivas M, Cobbold S, Waldmann H, Petein M, Schuind F, Goldman M, Le Moine A. CD8+ T cell depletion and rapamycin synergize with signal 1 and 2 blockade to induce robust limb allograft tolerance in mice. Am J Transplant 2008 ; 8 : 1-10.For scientific informations :
Nancy Dath | alfa
Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
On track to heal leukaemia
18.01.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
19.01.2017 | Earth Sciences
19.01.2017 | Life Sciences
19.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy