Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Slowing the allergic march

15.08.2011
Penn researchers identify a target that could combat allergies of early childhood

A pandemic of ailments called the "allergic march" -- the gradual acquisition of overlapping allergic diseases that commonly begins in early childhood -- has frustrated both parents and physicians. For the last three decades, an explosion of eczema, food allergies, hay fever, and asthma have afflicted children in the United States, the European Union, and many other countries.

What causes the march and how to derail it has remained elusive. Now, in this week's Nature, David Artis, PhD, an associate professor of Microbiology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and a team of collaborating international scientists, identified that expression of the protein TSLP may influence susceptibility to multiple allergic diseases by regulating the maturation of basophils, an uncommon type of white blood cell. Specifically, TSLP elicits the maturation of a population of distinct basophils that promotes allergic inflammation.

"A fundamental question regarding the allergic march is if a child has eczema, for example, which is associated with TSLP production in skin cells, why would some of those children subsequently be more susceptible to other allergic diseases at different sites of the body such as the gut or the lung?" asks Artis. "Although we have known that TSLP is associated with allergic diseases for many years, how this biological messenger might influence multiple allergic diseases has been a puzzle."

The origins of the present study lie in previous reports that showed that different versions of the gene encoding TSLP, an inflammation-producing cytokine, are associated with increased susceptibility to multiple allergic disorders, and that exaggerated TSLP production is associated with asthma, eczema, and food allergies in children. Together, these studies indicate that TSLP could be a critical regulator of multiple cytokine-associated allergic inflammatory diseases.

In this new report, mice overexpressing TSLP developed allergic inflammation in their lungs, skin, and gut that was associated with very high levels of basophils. "The critical findings are that TSLP appears to activate the development and maturation of early-stage basophils in the bone marrow and that TSLP elicits a distinct type of basophil," explains first author Mark Siracusa, PhD, a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Fellow in the Artis lab. Based on these findings, the researchers speculate that this basophil maturation could promote allergic reactions at multiple tissue sites.

To translate these findings to patient populations, Artis and colleagues teamed up with a group of pediatricians at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia to examine basophil responses in children that suffer from the food allergy-associated disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, which causes inflammation of the esophagus. Previous studies have shown that TSLP is overexpressed in food allergy patients. The team showed in the Nature paper that in children with food allergies basophils exhibited a different molecular make-up compared to non-allergy patients.

"It's promising that after more than 130 years since basophils were first discovered by Paul Ehrlich in Germany, we are still finding out new things about this cell population that could help in the design of new drugs to prevent or better fight allergic diseases," concludes Artis.

With more than 50 percent of Americans estimated to suffer from at least one allergic disease, says Artis, the team is hoping that targeting TSLP and basophils may offer new therapies for multiple allergic diseases.

In addition to Artis and Siracusa, co-authors are Steven A. Saenz, David A. Hill, Brian S. Kim, Travis A. Doering, E. John Wherry, and Taku Kambayashi, all from Penn, as well as Mark B. Headley and Steven F. Ziegler, Benaroya Research Institute, University of Washington School of Medicine; Heidi K. Jessup, Lori Siegel and Michael R. Comeau, Amgen Inc., Seattle; Emily C. Dudek, Antonella Cianferoni, & Jonathan M. Spergel, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; and Masato Kubo, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Tokyo University of Science.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

Penn Medicine is one of the world's leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation's first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $4 billion enterprise.

Penn's Perelman School of Medicine is currently ranked #2 in U.S. News & World Report's survey of research-oriented medical schools and among the top 10 schools for primary care.

The School is consistently among the nation's top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $507.6 million awarded in the 2010 fiscal year.

The University of Pennsylvania Health System's patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania -- recognized as one of the nation's top 10 hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Medical Center; and Pennsylvania Hospital – the nation's first hospital, founded in 1751. Penn Medicine also includes additional patient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region.

Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In fiscal year 2010, Penn Medicine provided $788 million to benefit our community.

Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.upenn.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrode materials from the microwave oven

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

New material for digital memories of the future

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods

19.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>