Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Review Calls for Increased Attention to Cancer Risk from Silica

11.12.2013
Action Could Help Millions of Americans Exposed to Silica at Work

A new review highlights new developments in understanding the health effects of silica, and calls for action to reduce illness and death from silica exposure at work, including stronger regulations, heightened awareness and prevention, and increased attention to early detection of silicosis and lung cancer using low dose CT scanning.

For centuries, silica has been known to cause lung disease (silicosis). Evidence that silica causes lung cancer has been more recent, accumulating over the last several decades. Writing in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Kyle Steenland, PhD, at the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University in Atlanta, and Elizabeth Ward, PhD, of the American Cancer Society highlight three important developments that hold potential to prevent illness and death from silica exposure at work.

The first development is the publication of recent studies providing detailed exposure-response data, enabling regulations based on quantitative risk assessment. New studies have also shown that silica-exposed workers who do not have silicosis and who do not smoke still have increased rates of death from lung mortality.

Second, a new rule lowering the permissible occupational exposure for the estimated 2.2 million US workers currently exposed to silica is currently under consideration. Risk assessments estimate that lowering occupational exposure limits from the current to the proposed standard will reduce silicosis and lung cancer mortality to approximately one-half of the rates predicted under the current standard.

Third, low-dose computed tomography scanning has now been proven to be an effective screening method for lung cancer. The authors recommend that clinicians ask about occupational history to determine if silica exposure has occurred, and if it has, that extra attention might be given to the early detection of silicosis and lung cancer, as well as extra emphasis on quitting smoking. The authors recommend that individuals with significant occupational exposure to silica be offered screening beginning at age 50 years if they also have smoked the equivalent of one pack a day for at least 20 pack-years; what experts call 20 pack-years of smoking.

The report says while there is some low-level silica exposure on beaches and in ambient air in general, there is no evidence such low-level exposure causes health effects. The more concerning exposures occur on the job, most often in the construction industry. Exposure occurs when workers cut, grind, crush, or drill silica-containing materials such as concrete, masonry, tile, and rock. About 320,000 workers are exposed in general industry operations such as brick, concrete, and pottery manufacturing, as well as operations using sand products, such as foundry work. Others are exposed during sandblasting. Silica exposure also occurs from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) of oil and gas wells.

The most effective measures for the control of occupational silica exposures include banning sandblasting, substituting metal grits for abrasive blasting, modifying processes and equipment, and controlling dust transmission by using enclosures, air curtains, water spray, and ventilation techniques, and the use of personal protective equipment.

“Current regulations have substantially reduced silicosis death rates in the United States, but new cases of silicosis continue to be diagnosed,” says Dr. Steenland. “And while the lung cancer risk associated with silica exposure is not as large as some other lung carcinogens, like smoking or asbestos exposure, there is strong and consistent evidence that silica exposure increases lung cancer risk.”

Article: Silica: A Lung Carcinogen, Kyle Steenland, PhD; Elizabeth Ward, PhD, CA Cancer J Clin 2013

David Sampson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cancer.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Organ-on-a-chip mimics heart's biomechanical properties
23.02.2017 | Vanderbilt University

nachricht Researchers identify cause of hereditary skeletal muscle disorder
22.02.2017 | Klinikum der Universität München

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>