There also is an emerging consensus that a multidisciplinary theoretical approach is necessary to understand the nature of the processes of cognitive aging. Thus, the studies presented in the issue represent the work of scholars in the areas of biology, epidemiology, demography, developmental psychology, gerontology, neuropsychology, and sociology.
“Knowledge of the relationship of aging to health and cognitive function is crucial to the understanding of the linkages between age-related socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, gender, and health disparities,” state Guest Editors Duane F. Alwin, PhD, and Scott M. Hofer, PhD.
Among the issue’s findings:
For many cognitive abilities, the declines associated with aging do not manifest themselves until after age 75.
High school class rank has a much larger effect than on survival than IQ across the lifespan.
The progressive substitution of mechanical power for human physical activity is undermining the physical fitness needed to preserve cognitive function.
Greater social contact and support are associated with better cognitive functioning, whereas greater conflict is associated with lower cognitive functioning.
Diseases either caused by or associated with aging — particularly vascular changes — play a larger role in age-related cognitive changes than is often acknowledged.
This collection of articles, titled “Cognition, Health, and Aging: Integrating Perspectives Across Disciplines,” is based on papers presented at a conference held at Penn State University in 2009. Funding for the supplemental issue was provided by the National Institute on Aging through the resources of the Center on Population Health and Aging at Penn State University, and the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative grant, Health and Healthspan in Longitudinal Studies of Aging.
The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences is a refereed publication of The Gerontological Society of America (GSA), the nation's oldest and largest interdisciplinary organization devoted to research, education, and practice in the field of aging. The principal mission of the Society — and its 5,400+ members — is to advance the study of aging and disseminate information among scientists, decision makers, and the general public. GSA’s structure also includes a policy institute, the National Academy on an Aging Society, and an educational branch, the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education.
Todd Kluss | EurekAlert!
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Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
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Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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