New research indicates that children who receive antibiotics before their first birthday are significantly more likely to develop asthma by age 7. The study, published in the June issue of CHEST, the peer-reviewed journal of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), reports that children receiving antibiotics in the first year of life were at greater risk for developing asthma by age 7 than those not receiving antibiotics. The risk for asthma doubled in children receiving antibiotics for nonrespiratory infections, as well as in children who received multiple antibiotic courses and who did not live with a dog during the first year.
“Antibiotics are prescribed mostly for respiratory tract infections, yet respiratory symptoms can be a sign of future asthma. This may make it difficult to attribute antibiotic use to asthma development,” said lead study author Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. “Our study reported on antibiotic use in children being treated for nonrespiratory tract infections, which distinguishes the effect of the antibiotic.”
By using a prescription database, Dr. Kozyrskyj and colleagues from the University of Manitoba and McGill University in Montreal were able to monitor the antibiotic use of 13,116 children from birth to age 7, specifically noting antibiotic use during the first year of life and presence of asthma at 7. The reason for antibiotic use was categorized by lower respiratory tract infection (bronchitis, pneumonia), upper respiratory tract infection (otitis media, sinusitis), and nonrespiratory tract infection (urinary infections, impetigo). Risk and protective factors also were noted, including gender, urban or rural location, neighborhood income, number of siblings at age 7, maternal history of asthma, and pets reported living in the home. Within the study group, 6 percent of children had current asthma at age 7, while 65 percent of children had received at least one antibiotic prescription during the first year of life. Of the prescriptions, 40 percent of children received antibiotics for otitis media, 28 percent for other upper respiratory tract infections, 19 percent for lower respiratory tract infections, and 7 percent for non-respiratory tract infections. Results showed that antibiotic use in the first year was significantly associated with greater odds of asthma at age 7. This likelihood increased with the number of antibiotic courses, with children receiving more than four courses of antibiotics having 1.5 times the risk of asthma compared with children not receiving antibiotics. When researchers compared the reason for antibiotic use, their analysis indicated that asthma at age 7 was almost twice as likely in children receiving an antibiotic for nonrespiratory tract infections compared with children who did not receive antibiotics.
Maternal asthma and presence of a dog during the first year of life were both associated with asthma risk. Children who received multiple antibiotic courses and who were born to women without a history of asthma were twice as likely to develop asthma than those not receiving antibiotics. Furthermore, absence of a dog during the birth-year doubled asthma risk among children taking multiple courses of antibiotics.
“Dogs bring germs into the home, and it is thought that this exposure is required for the infant's immune system to develop normally. Other research has shown that the presence of a dog in early life protects against the development of asthma,” said Dr. Kozyrskyj. “Exposure to germs is lower in the absence of a dog. The administration of an antibiotic may further reduce this exposure and increase the likelihood of asthma development.”
“Antibiotics are frequently prescribed for young children for both respiratory and nonrespiratory infections,” said Mark J. Rosen, MD, FCCP, President of the American College of Chest Physicians. “Understanding the relationship between antibiotic use and asthma can help clinicians make more informed decisions about treatment options for children.”
Millions through license revenues
27.04.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences