Genes of the main histocompatibility complex (called HLA with human beings) are responsible for recognition of alien proteins. These genes are numerous, and their variety is wide. When a person is to select a donor for transplantation, the donor is looked for by HLA-compatibility in particular. Coincidence in all known HLA antigens is a practically impossible event, however, it is sufficient to select a pair for transplantation which coincides in several HLA gene sequences. Physicians have recently found out that the HLA genes influence some reproductive disorders, however, the data on such impact is still contradictory.
The Moscow researchers have investigated the influence of the conjoints’ histocompatibility rate on the toxicosis development and gravity in the second half of pregnancy. They observed the course of pregnancy with 27 married couples, where the current or previous pregnancy proceeded with toxicosis, and 10 couples with physiological course of pregnancy, who made the reference group.
It has turned out that toxicosis occurs more frequently with women who have more than two identical HLA gene sequences with the child’s father. The coincidences were discovered with all the couples in the main group, while in the reference group – they were discovered in less than a half of cases. The more coincidences were between the husband and wife (in the large number of HLA gene sequences), the higher the gravity of toxicosis was. In the reference group, the number of coincidences was no more than two.
From the immunology perspective, the fetus is a transplant. Half of its genes is obtained from the father, therefore, a lot of fetus’ proteins are perceived by the mother’s organism as alien ones and should be rejected. However, the rejection does not happen as in the normal pregnancy course as the mother’s immune system transforms and becomes “tolerant” to the alien embryo. The difference in some loci of HLA-genes of the mother and the fetus becomes the very signal that sets the woman’s immune system to pregnancy. If the mother and the future child have turned out to be histocompatible, the immune system does not change, and the mother’s organism may reject the fetus. That is why a lot of specialists consider toxicosis as a clinical form of the fetus rejection in the second half of pregnancy.
In case of toxicosis, placenta develops improperly and is poorly supplied with blood, as it insufficiently grows into the womb tissue. As a result, the fetus suffers from the lack of oxygen and nutrients, and infants are born impaired and with deficiency in weight (they can even die in case of grave toxicosis). The histocompatibility analysis of married couples allows physicians to significantly enhance the notion of immunological component, toxicosis origin and its course. However, it can hardly be expected that in the near future the father for the future child will be selected as scrupulously as the donor for transplantation.
Nadezda Markina | alfa
Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections
17.02.2017 | University of California - San Diego
Tiny magnetic implant offers new drug delivery method
14.02.2017 | University of British Columbia
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine