WHAT: Secondary analyses of findings from the Women¡¦s Health Initiative (WHI) suggest that women who begin hormone therapy within 10 years of menopause may have less risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) due to hormone therapy than women farther from menopause. Overall, hormone therapy did not reduce the risk of CHD. However, the farther a woman was from the onset of menopause when she began hormone therapy, the greater her risk of CHD due to hormone therapy appeared to be. Although these findings did not meet statistical significance, they suggest that the health consequences of hormone therapy may vary by time from menopause.
These findings are consistent with the primary publications from the WHI trials of estrogen plus progestin and estrogen-alone (total of 27,347 participants) in showing no overall benefit for CHD, and in suggesting that risk due to hormones may differ depending on age or years since menopause.
"Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease by Age and Years Since Menopause," will be published in the April 4 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
In a secondary analysis, scientists reanalyze previously collected data and findings in an effort to clarify or ask new questions. In the case of this latest WHI analysis, the authors combined the data from the two trials to explore in more detail the previously observed trends in hormone effects by distance from the menopause. Differences in hormone therapy effects were examined in three age categories (50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 79) or in years since the onset of menopause (less than 10, 10 to 19, and 20 or more). The Women's Health Initiative and the newly published analyses are funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health.
The analyses also suggest that the increased risk in heart disease due to hormone therapy in older women is primarily in those who also have hot flashes and night sweats. Study participants who had these symptoms were more likely to have risk factors for CHD such as high blood pressure or high blood cholesterol, but it was not clear whether this explained their higher risk on hormone therapy.
Other results from the analyses of the combined trials include:
- There was a trend (not statistically significant) towards reduced risk for death associated with hormone use in younger compared to older women.
WHI is a major 15-year research program designed to address the most frequent causes of death, disability and poor quality of life in postmenopausal women -- cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. Both the estrogen plus progestin and estrogen-alone trials of the WHI were stopped early because of increased health risks and the failure to prevent heart disease. Specifically, the estrogen plus progestin trial was stopped after 5.6 years because of an increased risk of breast cancer and because overall risks, including increased risks for heart attack, stroke, and blood clots, outnumbered benefits. The estrogen-alone study was stopped after 6.8 years because of an increased risk of stroke and no reduction in risk of CHD. The estrogen-alone study also found an increased risk of blood clots.
WHO: Jacques Rossouw, M.D. chief of the Women's Health Initiative Branch at NHLBI, and lead author of the study, is available to comment on the implications of the new study for women considering hormone therapy at different ages. He will note that the findings may be somewhat reassuring to younger women considering hormone therapy for short term relief of symptoms, but do not change the current recommendation that hormone therapy should not be used at any age for prevention of CHD. Women considering hormone therapy should have risk factors such as blood pressure and blood cholesterol measured and managed, and have regular mammograms. Dr. Rossouw can comment on the need for additional research to explore the overall findings and the finding regarding night sweats and hot flashes.
Millions through license revenues
27.04.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences