Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Insulin Pills


The issue of insulin-dependent diabetes has long been discussed. No wonder, as the problem concerns more than 5% of the world population. However, despite the enormous efforts and funds spent on its solution, the scientists so far have failed to replace the injections with pills. The difficulty is that insulin (like any other polypeptide) gets easily destroyed under the influence of proteolytic enzymes in the stomach and small intestines. The scientists have tried a variety of means: insulin plasters, inhalations, capsules covered with a special protective coating, but none of the above has ensured the required effect. The amount of insulin thus getting into the blood is insufficient for normal functioning of the organism.

Chemists from the the Topichev Institute for Petrochemical Synthesis have suggested a unique and efficient solution to the problem having split it into two parts. To ensure that the remedy gets into the blood out of the pill, it is required that the remedy slipped `safely` through the stomach - this is stage one. Then it is necessary to make sure that the remedy gets into the blood in the small intestines quicker than the enzymes would destroy it - this is stage two.

The first part of the problem can be solved easily. It is sufficient to cover the pill with a layer that is resistant to the stomach ferments action and dissolves once the pill gets into the intestine. Quite harmless polyacrylic or polymethacrylic acid suits this purpose, therefore the researchers have proposed to use it as a coating. However, in such case insulin will not `live` long enough - it will be destroyed by the enzymes earlier than it gets through the intestine walls. At this stage works the major specificity that differs the pills from all the previous remedy forms applied.

The researchers have suggested that the pills should be made of the pressed little grains of hydrogel, where three substances are introduced. The first substance is insulin per sei. It is not chemically bound with the hydrogel and therefore can be easily released. The second substance is an inhibitor which protect insulin against the enzymes. To ensure that the inhibitor does no harm to the organism, it is made chemically bound with the hydrogel. Thus it will react only with those enzyme molecules which try to penetrate into the hydrogel grain and to `eat up` the insulin from its surface. The hydrogel is indigestible by a human organism, so the bound inhibitor will not get into the blood and leave the organism in a natural way with the hydrogel grains.

And finally, it is necessary to retain the hydrogel grains near the intestine wall so that the insulin protected by the inhibitor against the enzyme attack could stick to the mucous membrane of the intestines and successfully get into the blood. Some `anchor` is required to achieve this. The scientists have proposed to use some polysaccharide as an anchor, the polysaccharide also being chemically bound with the hydrogel. The point is that the intestine wall contains the so-called lectins - the substances which interact with sugars. The lectins are quite capable of binding with polysaccharides on the surface of the hydrogel grains and holding them attached to the mucous membrane.

The last thing to do was to introduce three types of compounds into the hydrogel, namely insulin, enzyme inhibitor and polysaccharide serving as an anchor. However, the developers and patent holders have come to the conclusion that the process can be simplified - it is required to find a substance which could fulfil two functions simultaneously - of an `anchor` and of an inhibitor.

The scientists suggested that the ovomucoid glycoprotein could play this role. This compound seems to be deliberately created for this purpose by nature. The ovomucoid happens to consist of two parts. The protein part is responsible for the enzyme binding, and the carbohydrate part reacts with lectins of the mucuous membrane. The scientists have assumed that the ovomucoid should be added to the hydrogel containing insulin.

As a result the researches have produced the insulin pills based on the hydrogel containing the chemically immobilized ovomucoid. The pills were initially tried on animals - rabbits, mice and rats. Since the results were rather promising, it was decided to proceed with clinical trials of the pills - the pills could not do any harm, but their efficiency should be proved.

The pills are currently undergoing the second stage of the clinical trial and the results are very convincing. Judging by the glucose and insulin concentration in the blood, the perroral intake ensures the same effect as the insulin injection directly into the blood.

"Our drug produces the same effect as traditional injections. The pill should also be taken four times a day, about half an hour before the meal. Of course, the drug does not eliminate the problem completely, it does not cure the patient, what it does - it relieves the patient 4 injections a day. No other remedy has succeeded to achieve that so far," says Professor L. I. Valuyev, one of the drug developers. The scientists called the drug `RANSULIN`, the name originates from the Russian abbreviation for the Russian Academy of Sciences and insulin.

Apparently the way from the clinical trials to the pharmacies can take several years. However, this is only a matter of time, since the efficiency of perroral insulin developed by the Russian scientists gives rise to no doubts.

Tatiana Pitchugina | alphagalileo

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia
21.10.2016 | Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg

nachricht New potential cancer treatment using microwaves to target deep tumors
12.10.2016 | University of Texas at Arlington

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia

21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions

21.10.2016 | Information Technology

From ancient fossils to future cars

21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>