In a special double issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease published in November 2006, guest editors Andrei C. Miu and Oana Benga have brought together 14 insightful articles that explore the roles that metals play in the biochemistry and physiology of AD.
The articles cover six major categories: Comprehensive historical reviews, methodological perspectives, a topical review, integrative genetic and epigenetic reports, a review of risk factors and a “benchmark to clinical” review.
From guest editors Andrei C. Miu and Oana Benga: “We are grateful to the authors who accepted our challenge and who have shown that metallobiologists working in AD research have been less fascinated with describing end-stage pathognomonic lesions, and more concerned with identifying risk and aggravating factors that might help us better predict, diagnose and hopefully prevent AD in the future.”
John Savory, Mary M. Herman and Othman Ghribi review the four-decades-old controversy about aluminum neurotoxicity, examining data on the possible cellular mechanisms underlying aluminum neurotoxicity and potential neuroprotective strategies against aluminum toxicity. In the next review, Paul A. Adlard and Ashley I. Bush discuss how metal ions such as zinc and copper can potentiate Alzheimer’s disease by participating in the aggregation of normal cellular proteins and in the generation of reactive oxygen species. In the third review article, Arezoo Campbell focuses on how aluminum and copper can initiate or propagate an inflammatory response in the aging brain. Christopher Exley reviews in-vitro studies of metals found in plaque cores in AD brains and concludes that aluminum and iron could cause oxidative damage but copper and zinc likely do not. In the final review article, Andrei C. Miu and Oana Benga recount the long history of aluminum’s hypothetical role in AD. They extensively discuss several lines of evidence for involvement of aluminum as a secondary aggravating factor or risk factor and argue that further studies are warranted.
Bettina Platt discusses the methodologies that have been used to identify Alzheimer- and dementia-related targets for exogenous toxins. She explains how neuronal function can be assessed experimentally, based on the evidence obtained for the neurotoxin aluminum. In the second article on methods, Joanna Collingwood and Jon Dobson write about recent approaches to locate and identify iron compounds in neurodegenerative tissue. In addition to complementary techniques that allow them to quantify and identify iron compounds using magnetometry, extraction and electron microscopy, they utilize a powerful combined mapping/characterization approach with synchrotron X-rays.
The movement of metals across the blood-brain barrier is reviewed by Robert A. Yokel. A number of transporters are described that could mediate metal transport into and out of the brain. He reviews the role of these transporters in moving aluminum, manganese, iron and other metals across the blood-brain barrier.
Hani Atamna has developed a novel model of amyloid-beta induced heme-deficiency that could account for neurodegeneration in AD patients. He reviews the genetic, nutritional and toxicological factors that influence heme metabolism and their relevance to AD. James R. Connor and Sang Y. Lee discuss genetic mutations in the HFE gene that can affect iron balance in the brain, potentially leading to the generation of reactive oxygen and oxidative damage. In a study of the presenilins (PS), Nazneen N. Dewji discusses how these proteins can trigger a cascade of processes that lead to amyloid-beta production, leading to AD. He reviews the structures of the PS proteins that can support the model of a surface reaction between two nearby brain cells. Iftach Dolev and Daniel M. Michaelson write about the apoE4 isoform of apolipoprotein E. Their study of the nucleation, growth and reversibility of amyloid-beta deposition in mice should shed new light on this genetic risk factor for AD.
Vincenzo Solfrizzi and co-authors review the possible role of macronutrients and the basic elements of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat in the development of AD. They suggest that healthy diets, antioxidant supplements, and the prevention of nutritional deficiencies or exposure to foods and water with high content of metals could be considered the first line of defense against the development and progression of cognitive decline.
In the final article, Jose L. Domingo focuses on the role of aluminum and metals such as copper and zinc in AD, as well as on metal chelator therapy as a potential treatment for AD. The effects of aluminum, copper and zinc chelating agents on amyloid-beta plaques are reviewed.Special Issue: Metals in Alzheimer's Disease
Table of ContentsAndrei C. Miu and Oana Benga
Macronutrients, aluminium from drinking water and foods, and other metals in cognitive decline and dementiaJose L. Domingo
Astrid Engelen | alfa
Hot cars can hit deadly temperatures in as little as one hour
24.05.2018 | Arizona State University
3D images of cancer cells in the body: Medical physicists from Halle present new method
16.05.2018 | Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.
Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...
A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.
The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...
At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.
At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...
There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?
At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
25.05.2018 | Event News
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering
25.05.2018 | Life Sciences