The study appeared in the Sept. 1 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
In acute lung injury -- usually resulting from infection, inflammation or surgical trauma -- cells that line the blood vessels in the lung lose their ability to form a barrier, allowing fluid to seep into the lung's air spaces and resulting in respiratory failure. Such damage is a significant cause of death in critically ill patients.
Very little is known about how the lung repairs this lining layer, called the endothelium, said You-Yang Zhao, research assistant professor of pharmacology.
"We thought it likely that the ability of cells to repair and restore the endothelium might depend on their ability to proliferate and fill in gaps in the endothelial monolayer barrier that allow leaking," said Zhao, who is lead author of the study.
Earlier studies had shown that FoxM1, a protein that controls the expression of genes, plays a critical role in cell proliferation. Working with the late Robert Costa, professor of biochemistry and molecular genetics at UIC, whose research focused on FoxM1, the researchers developed a mouse model that lacked the FoxM1 gene only in endothelial cells.
In the study, lung injury was induced in normal mice and in the gene-deleted mice. Blood vessels in the FoxM1-deficient mice continued to leak fluid, and the mice were significantly less likely to recover, resulting in a seven-times-greater mortality rate.
Although the immune response of each group was similar, there was less endothelial cell proliferation in the gene-deficient mice after the injury, suggesting that inability to fill the gaps in the barrier with new cell growth impaired the ability to recover.
Asrar Malik, professor and head of pharmacology at UIC, says the results suggest that lung injury activates a repair program, mediated by FoxM1, that encourages cell growth and restores the barrier integrity.
"This suggests future therapies for acute lung injury that target this molecule could promote endothelial regeneration and the patient's recovery," said Malik, who is senior author of the paper.
Jeanne Galatzer-Levy | EurekAlert!
Investigators may unlock mystery of how staph cells dodge the body's immune system
22.09.2017 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?
21.09.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy