Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

HIV subtype predicts likelihood of early death from AIDS

08.02.2006


Johns Hopkins scientists say an infected person’s HIV subtype is a better predictor than viral load for determining rapid death from AIDS. Traditional testing standards help monitor the progression of an HIV infection to AIDS by keeping track of viral load, using a scale in which less than 50 viral particles per cubic milliliter of blood is considered suppressed disease and a viral load of more than 75,000 particles per cubic milliliter of blood means that the disease will progress more rapidly.



In what is believed to be the first analysis of viral subtype as a predictor of death from AIDS, which also takes into account viral load, the Hopkins team found that having viral subtype D made a person with HIV likely to die more rapidly compared to a person with subtype A. Ten percent of those infected with subtype D died within three years, while none with subtype A died. However, viral load ranged from 20,000 particles per cubic milliliter of blood to 100,000 particles per cubic milliliter of blood in those with both subtypes, and was not found to be an accurate predictor of rapid death within the same timeframe.

Participants in the study came from the Rakai cohort, a population of 12,000 people in Uganda who are being monitored to determine how HIV spreads throughout the country. More than 300 newly infected men and women participated in the study, conducted between 1995 and 2001, with 53 becoming infected with subtype A and 203 infected with subtype D. Another 70 were infected with a recombinant version of both subtypes. Even though the quantity of virus infecting these individuals was roughly the same for each subtype, average years of survival for each subtype differed widely: 8.8 years for A, 6.9 years for D and 5.8 years for AD.


Through annual blood tests, which were part of the study, the researcher knew when each person became infected. Once the diagnosis was confirmed, researchers used DNA tests to determine the HIV subtype, A and D being the most common in Uganda.

Researchers believe that subtype D is more virulent than subtype A because D has the ability to bind to key receptors on immune cells, allowing subtype D to kill more quickly. Additional blood analysis showed that with subtype A, the virus bound only to one kind of receptor, CCR5, to infect the cell. But 25 percent of subtype D virus bound to both CCR5 and another receptor, CXCR4. Indeed, two-thirds of those infected with CXCR4-binding virus died within three years.

According to the study’s lead researcher, Oliver Laeyendecker, M.S., M.B.A., a senior research associate at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and senior research assistant at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, "Knowing a person’s HIV subtype is important for the management of the infection because the disease can progress more rapidly in those infected with subtype D and recombinant virus incorporating subtype D than in those with other subtypes."

The Effect of HIV Subtype on Rapid Disease Progression in Rakai, Uganda. Oliver Laeyendecker, Xianbin Li, Miguel Arroyo, Francine McCutchan, Ron Gray, Maria Wawer, David Serwadda, Fred Nalugoda, Godfrey Kigozi, and Thomas Quinn.

David March | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhmi.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Vanishing capillaries
23.03.2017 | Technische Universität München

nachricht How prenatal maternal infections may affect genetic factors in Autism spectrum disorder
22.03.2017 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Inactivate vaccines faster and more effectively using electron beams

23.03.2017 | Life Sciences

New study maps space dust in 3-D

23.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Tracing aromatic molecules in the early universe

23.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>