The idea that your bladder shrinks as you get older may be nothing more than an old wives tale according to a University of Pittsburgh study. The feeling may, however, signal a treatable underlying condition. Results are to be presented today at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) in San Antonio, and will be published in abstract 1218 in the AUA proceedings.
"Many of us, after reaching a certain age, notice that we have to urinate more frequently and with more urgency. The standard assumption, that seems to have become part of our folklore, is that your bladder shrinks as you get older. We found that this may not be the case," said Neil Resnick, M.D., professor and chief, division of geriatric medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
In the study, the researchers compared data on a number of variables including bladder capacity and stability, urethral closure pressure, voiding flow rate and detrusor contraction strength from 95 females between the ages of 22 and 90. The researchers found that while bladder and urethral function deteriorate throughout adult life, bladder capacity rarely changes.
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At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
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Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
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Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
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Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
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