Each year tuberculosis kills about three million people in the world. In particular it is responsible for the death of more than one-third of HIV- infected people, who prove particularly susceptible owing to a decline in immune defences. The agent responsible is a bacterium of the species Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also termed Koch’s bacillus, after the scientist who discovered it in 1882.
Molecular epidemiology has proved valuable for understanding the transmission and control of tuberculosis, thanks to the development of different methods of characterization of the M. tuberculosis genome. However, little genetic data is currently available in the countries of the South, where this disease is often a major public health problem. In Morocco, tuberculosis incidence is still high, with about 30 000 new cases are recorded each year, in spite of a level of HIV infection that remains of quite low concern and the application since 1991 of a WHO strategy called DOTS (2). Researchers from the IRD and their scientific partners (1) studied the genetic diversity and structure of a Moroccan population consisting of 150 strains of the species M. tuberculosis. These strains come from 150 pulmonary tuberculosis infected subjects living in Casablanca, the country’s economic capital, which on its own accounts for one-fifth of all tuberculosis cases declared in Morocco.
Two independent and complementary molecular genotyping techniques were applied to the specimens collected. The first used generalist genetic markers which allow analysis of the genetic diversity of the population considered, but also comparison of the genetic diversity of the pathogenic species M. tuberculosis with that of other microorganisms. The second, which is the most recent technique used for characterizing the M. tuberculosis genome, calls on specific markers of this mycobacterium, adapted to the identification of the different strains isolated.
Marie Guillaume | alfa
GLUT5 fluorescent probe fingerprints cancer cells
20.04.2018 | Michigan Technological University
Scientists re-create brain neurons to study obesity and personalize treatment
20.04.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.
Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
23.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.04.2018 | Trade Fair News