Although prolonged breastfeeding is well known to be a major route of transmission of HIV infection to infants and is estimated to cause one-third to one-half of new infant HIV-1 infections worldwide, the majority of breastfed infants with HIV-positive mothers remain uninfected, even after months of exposure.
Investigators at Emory University School of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Emory Vaccine Center, and the University of Paris reviewed the scientific literature to pinpoint the reasons why many breastfed infants resist HIV, with the goal of devising future intervention strategies to prevent newborn infections. Their findings were published online in November and will be published in the December issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
The researchers, led by Athena P. Kourtis, MD, PhD, MPH, formerly assistant professor of pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine (now at Eastern Virginia Medical School and working at CDC) and Chris Ibegbu, PhD of the Emory Vaccine Center, identified several factors that have been cited by scientists as potentially enabling or preventing transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Enabling factors could include the introduction of HIV into the gastrointestinal tract through a breach in the cell layer in the intestinal lining, or immune activation in the gastrointestinal tract could cause more HIV virus to reach this epithelial layer. Protective factors may include the hostile environment presented to viruses by the saliva and its various viral-inhibiting components.
Tia Webster | EurekAlert!
Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care
Disrupted fat breakdown in the brain makes mice dumb
19.05.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.
In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...
Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...
For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. Researchers from the University of Basel’s Swiss Nanoscience Institute network have reported the results in the journal Science Advances.
Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe and is an integral part of almost all organic compounds. Molecules and sections of macromolecules are...
22.05.2017 | Event News
17.05.2017 | Event News
16.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Materials Sciences
22.05.2017 | Life Sciences
22.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy