Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

PET Scans Used to Determine Progression of HIV Infection

29.09.2003


Findings Could Lead to New Treatments of HIV Infection



Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine used positron emission tomography (PET) scans to identify sites of replicating HIV in the lymphatic system of people recently infected with the virus. PET scan imaging is typically used to detect tumors. The researchers believe PET scans could lead to greater understanding of HIV disease and new methods for treating the infection. Their findings are published in the September 20, 2003, edition of The Lancet.

According to the study, the PET scans recorded activation of the lymph nodes, which are involved in the body’s immune response. Activation was most notable in lymph nodes in upper torso and neck areas of the body among participants recently infected with HIV. Nodes in the lower torso were involved to a lesser extent. Participants who were infected with HIV for a longer period and remained asymptomatic with low viral loads also had lymph node activation in the neck, upper torso and pelvic areas. The researchers observed a tight correlation between the viral replication and the lymph node activity on the PET signal.


Lead author Sujatha Iyengar, PhD, and David Schwartz, MD, PhD, senior investigator of the study, propose that PET scans could be used to locate the specific nodes where HIV is replicating and remove them or target them with radiation. “Although many systemic sites from which latent virus could be reactivated would be left, reactivation might not occur for months or years after removal of the active nodes, thereby allowing extended interruption of treatment for the disease. Despite the systemic nature of HIV infection, the sites of viral replication appear remarkably restricted to limited anatomic locations at any given time. This suggests microenvironmental niche selection in true Darwinian fashion,” noted Dr. Schwartz, who is an
associate professor with the School’s Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology.

“Equally important for the future of this technology is the observation that immune responses to vaccines can be anatomically localized and measured in normal individuals,” said Dr. Iyengar, who is a research associate with the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology. “This could be invaluable in the evaluation of new vaccines and routes of administration.”

For the study, the researchers used PET scans to examine 23 people who were HIV-positive, 12 of whom had recently been infected. The other 11 had been infected for a long period of time, but none of the participants had any signs of disease or illness. The researchers also scanned eight non-infected individuals as a control group. They were given influenza vaccine to stimulate lymph node activation.

“Anatomical loci of HIV-associated immune activation and association of viraemia” was written by Sujatha Iyengar, Bennett Chin, Joseph B. Margolick, Beulah P. Sabundayo and David Schwartz.

Funding for the study was provided by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Center for AIDS Research and the Alternatives Research Development Fund.

Public Affairs Media Contacts for the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: Tim Parsons or Kenna Brigham at 410-955-6878 or paffairs@jhsph.edu.

Tim Parsons | JHU
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu/Press_Room/Press_Releases/HIV_PET_scan.html

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New study points the way to therapy for rare cancer that targets the young
22.11.2017 | Rockefeller University

nachricht Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Water cooling for the Earth's crust

23.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nano-watch has steady hands

23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Batteries with better performance and improved safety

23.11.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>