Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

PET Scans Used to Determine Progression of HIV Infection

29.09.2003


Findings Could Lead to New Treatments of HIV Infection



Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine used positron emission tomography (PET) scans to identify sites of replicating HIV in the lymphatic system of people recently infected with the virus. PET scan imaging is typically used to detect tumors. The researchers believe PET scans could lead to greater understanding of HIV disease and new methods for treating the infection. Their findings are published in the September 20, 2003, edition of The Lancet.

According to the study, the PET scans recorded activation of the lymph nodes, which are involved in the body’s immune response. Activation was most notable in lymph nodes in upper torso and neck areas of the body among participants recently infected with HIV. Nodes in the lower torso were involved to a lesser extent. Participants who were infected with HIV for a longer period and remained asymptomatic with low viral loads also had lymph node activation in the neck, upper torso and pelvic areas. The researchers observed a tight correlation between the viral replication and the lymph node activity on the PET signal.


Lead author Sujatha Iyengar, PhD, and David Schwartz, MD, PhD, senior investigator of the study, propose that PET scans could be used to locate the specific nodes where HIV is replicating and remove them or target them with radiation. “Although many systemic sites from which latent virus could be reactivated would be left, reactivation might not occur for months or years after removal of the active nodes, thereby allowing extended interruption of treatment for the disease. Despite the systemic nature of HIV infection, the sites of viral replication appear remarkably restricted to limited anatomic locations at any given time. This suggests microenvironmental niche selection in true Darwinian fashion,” noted Dr. Schwartz, who is an
associate professor with the School’s Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology.

“Equally important for the future of this technology is the observation that immune responses to vaccines can be anatomically localized and measured in normal individuals,” said Dr. Iyengar, who is a research associate with the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology. “This could be invaluable in the evaluation of new vaccines and routes of administration.”

For the study, the researchers used PET scans to examine 23 people who were HIV-positive, 12 of whom had recently been infected. The other 11 had been infected for a long period of time, but none of the participants had any signs of disease or illness. The researchers also scanned eight non-infected individuals as a control group. They were given influenza vaccine to stimulate lymph node activation.

“Anatomical loci of HIV-associated immune activation and association of viraemia” was written by Sujatha Iyengar, Bennett Chin, Joseph B. Margolick, Beulah P. Sabundayo and David Schwartz.

Funding for the study was provided by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Center for AIDS Research and the Alternatives Research Development Fund.

Public Affairs Media Contacts for the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: Tim Parsons or Kenna Brigham at 410-955-6878 or paffairs@jhsph.edu.

Tim Parsons | JHU
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu/Press_Room/Press_Releases/HIV_PET_scan.html

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Organ-on-a-chip mimics heart's biomechanical properties
23.02.2017 | Vanderbilt University

nachricht Researchers identify cause of hereditary skeletal muscle disorder
22.02.2017 | Klinikum der Universität München

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New pop-up strategy inspired by cuts, not folds

27.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Sandia uses confined nanoparticles to improve hydrogen storage materials performance

27.02.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

Decoding the genome's cryptic language

27.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>