Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New HIV vaccine holds promise of global effectiveness

14.11.2002


Clinical tests began today of a novel vaccine directed at the three most globally important HIV subtypes, or clades. Developed by scientists at the Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center (VRC), part of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the vaccine incorporates HIV genetic material from clades A, B and C, which cause about 90 percent of all HIV infections around the world.



"This is the first multigene, multiclade HIV vaccine to enter human trials," notes NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "It marks an important milestone in our search for a single vaccine that targets U.S. subtypes of HIV as well as clades causing the global epidemic," he adds.

"This trial begins a process that we hope will culminate in a globally effective HIV vaccine," says Gary Nabel, M.D., Ph.D., who heads the VRC. "The first step is to develop a multiclade vaccine. If our candidate elicits an effective immune response and proves safe in clinical testing, we will include additional components in subsequent trials in hopes of boosting this response. Ultimately, we aim to build a potent vaccine designed to prevent HIV infection."


The trial vaccine is a DNA vaccine, a kind shown to be very safe in previous clinical trials. It incorporates parts of four HIV genes. Three of these vaccine components are modified versions of HIV genes called gag, pol and nef taken from clade B, the subtype that predominates in Europe and North America. The fourth vaccine component is derived from an HIV gene named env.

The env gene codes for a protein on the outer coat of the virus that allows it to recognize and attach to human cells. VRC scientists are the first to combine modified env from clades A and C, which are the most common in Africa, as well as from clade B. A single vaccine combining multiple env components from different HIV subtypes could, in theory, be effective in many places in the world.

While these gene fragments can stimulate an immune response, they cannot reconstitute themselves into an infectious virus. A person cannot become infected with HIV from this vaccine, Dr. Nabel emphasizes.

Efforts to develop a broadly effective vaccine against HIV are complicated not only by the many clades, but also by the virus’ ability to elude immune system defenses through rapid mutation. "Any HIV vaccine must hit a constantly moving target," says Dr. Nabel. "Essentially, we are trying to enlarge that target through a multiclade vaccine." Researchers do not yet know if a multiclade vaccine will be more effective than one based on a single clade. "That is one question we hope our vaccine trials will eventually answer," notes Dr. Nabel.

The public plays a critical role in this ongoing research, says Barney Graham, M.D., Ph.D., chief of the VRC’s clinical trials core and lead investigator in the multiclade vaccine trial. "We want the community to understand and support the process of vaccine development so that together we can attain the goal of stopping or slowing the AIDS pandemic," he says. "Although thousands have already volunteered to take part in HIV vaccine trials, many more are needed. The importance of community participation cannot be overemphasized," says Dr. Graham.

The first phase of the trial, which is being conducted at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD, is meant to determine the vaccine’s safety and will enroll 50 healthy, HIV-negative volunteers. Following an extensive informed consent process, volunteers, who must be between 18 and 40 years old to participate, will be vaccinated with either the test vaccine or an inactive saline solution in a series of increasing doses. Neither the participants nor the researchers will know which group a participant is in. During the yearlong trial, scientists will assess the vaccine’s safety and note if it induces any immune response in the vaccinees. Expanded tests conducted through NIAID’s HIV Vaccine Trials Network are planned for several domestic sites as well as sites in Haiti and South Africa.

Anne Oplinger | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/vrc

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Custom-tailored strategy against glioblastomas
26.09.2016 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht New leukemia treatment offers hope
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-Ever 3D Printed Excavator Project Advances Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing R&D

Heavy construction machinery is the focus of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s latest advance in additive manufacturing research. With industry partners and university students, ORNL researchers are designing and producing the world’s first 3D printed excavator, a prototype that will leverage large-scale AM technologies and explore the feasibility of printing with metal alloys.

Increasing the size and speed of metal-based 3D printing techniques, using low-cost alloys like steel and aluminum, could create new industrial applications...

Im Focus: New welding process joins dissimilar sheets better

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Paper – Panacea Green Infrastructure?

30.09.2016 | Event News

HLF: From an experiment to an establishment

29.09.2016 | Event News

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

First-Ever 3D Printed Excavator Project Advances Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing R&D

30.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

New Technique for Finding Weakness in Earth’s Crust

30.09.2016 | Earth Sciences

Cells migrate collectively by intermittent bursts of activity

30.09.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>